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Full text of "Professional anecdotes, or Ana of medical literature"

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THE 

ABNER WELLBORN CALHOUN 

MEDICAL LIBRARY 

1923 




Class. 



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PRESENTED BY 



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SHELF No.^..</f.. 



YOUNG MEN'S LIBRARY OF ATLANTA: 

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CONTENTS OF VOL. II. 



Herman Boerhaave 1 

Robert Recorde 3 

Barber-Surgeons Company 5 

Physician's Vacation 6 

George Owen, M. D 7 

Edward Jorden 8 

Olaus Wormius 10 

Prescribing, and Thinking ib. 

State of Medicine in China , , 11 

Sir Thomas Elyot, M. D 12 

Attainment of Long Life 15 

James Coytier, Physician to Charles XI. of France 16 

Daniel Kenricus 17 

Adventure of a London Druggist ib. 

Abernethy 18 

Swoon 22 

The Ruffian Plebotomht ib. 

Bichat's Theory of Life 23 

Buisson's Modifications of Bichat's Theory of Life. . 27 

Dr. Ki ng ; ". • 28 

Medicine and Surgery among the Aborigines of New 

Holland 29 

Nonnius • 30 

Specific 31 

Hydrophobia ib- 

VOL. II* & 



IV CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Noses , 32 

The Physician and Poet ib. 

A poplexy Defined 33 

Woodward ib. 

William Stukely, M. D 34 

Death of Descartes ib. 

Dr. Monsey and a Clergyman , 35 

Boerhaave and Peruvian Bark 36 

A Surgeon Whale-Catcher 37 

A Surgeon Aeronaut ib. 

Blood-letting 38 

Dr. John Case, a Quack 39 

Dr, Raddifte and Dr. Case ib. 

Dr. Darwin's Repartee 40 

Dr. Sangrado ib. 

Sir Robert Talbot 41 

The Anti-Connubial Apostate 42 

The Prediction verified 43 

Lientaud ib. 

Sir William Petty 44 

Monsey and Hingestone 45 

Death of Rabelais 46 

Dr. A. King's Invitation ib. 

Sir Charles Scarborough 47 

The Three Characters of a Physician ib. 

Convalescence ib. 

The last Resource 48 

Wal pole and Monsey ib. 

Dr. Sydenham 49 

Beauty 50 

Chevalier Taylor ib. 

Advertisement 5) 



CONTENTS. V 

PAGE 

The Oath of Hippocrates 52 

Alchemy 53 

-Astragal 54 

Charles Drelincourt 55 

Siogular Custom ib' 

Radcliffeand Kneller 56 

Sale of the Body before Death ib. 

Ingenious Subterfuge 57 

Compunctious Visitings 58 

Dr. Pitcairn, F. R. S ib. 

Pitcairn on Fever 59 

Apothecary Defined ib. 

L'Asthma 60 

Dr. Monsey and Garrick 61 

Sir Richard Jebb 66 

Circulation of the Blood ib. 

" Sola Virtus Nobilitas" ; 67 

William Butter 68 

Dr. Jenner 69 

Sir William Read 70 

Surgeon and Astronomer ib. 

To Joannes Taylor 71 

John Belchier ib. 

Generosity and Benevolence 72 

Jean Baptiste Verduc, M.D 73 

Lines on the Tomb of Dr. Jenner 74 

A Dangerous Bleeder ib. 

Dr. Radcliffe's Secret ib. 

The Chariot of Antimony 75 

Dr. Lionel Lockyer 77 

The Abbe de Voisenon ib. 

Friend Walker 78 

a 2 



Tl CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Just Discrimination v 79 

Apothecary 's-Hall, at Moscow ib. 

Le Chimiste 80 

The Prediction -. ib. 

Coxcombs of the Old School 81 

Appellations Defined 83 

Apoplexy Cured ." 83 

The Rival Doctors....- ib. 

Blacksmith Oculist. * 84 

Dr. John Arbuthnot 85 

Dr. Bellyse 86 

Dr. Glynn 88 

Dr, Brocklesby and the Valet ib. 

Dr. Fothergill and Mr. Grenville- 89 

Dangerous Despotism 90 

Jean Fernel i b. 

LinnBeus 91 

Culpable Neglect 92 

Dr. Hostresham 93 

William Bute or Butts 98 

Dr. Harvey 99 

Valentine Greatrakes 101 

The Apothecary at Fault 105 

William Turner 106 

Competition Extraordinary 1 08 

Sentence against an Apothecary 109 

M. Fochon ib. 

Extensive Venesection 110 

Touching for the Kfbg's Evil Ill 

The Golden Touch 113 

Secrets of Trade, S 114 

Early Rising 115 



CONTENTS. Vll 

rACE 

Physician's Fees ■•. Il5 

On James Smith 116 

Dr. Garth lit 

Vaccination ib. 

The Portuguese Medical Test . , 118 

Singular Case of Poisoning \ff ib. 

The Gourmand's Complaint 120 

Hint (<» AVig-Wearers . . . ib. 

Irresistible Fees 121 

Royal College of Surgeons ib. 

Empirical Impudence 124 

The last Fee 125 

Gig Patients ., ib. 

Fasting 126 

Eccentric Array-Surgeon ; 127 

Guy Patin and M. Menage , ... . 131 

Dr. Glynn's Practice 132 

Choice of a Physician , 123 

Gout 135 

Fracture of the Thigh ib. 

Phenomena of Muscular Contraction 1 36 

Dr. Baillie 142 

BaiUie's Lectures 143 

Medi(*o-Legal Opinion 144 

Phillips's Physiological Theories 145 

John rtf Gaddesdeu 147 

Hugh Do wnman, M. D 148 

James Silas Dodd, Surgeon 1 49 

Dr. Glynn's Presumption 150 

Gall-Bladder ib. 

Doctor Darwin ■: 151 

Thomas Willis, M.D v 153 



VM CONTENTS. 

FAGK. 

William Saunders, M. D 154 s 

The Village Apothecary and Clergyman 155 

Dr. John Aikin .- 157 

Archbishop Grindall 158 

William Wal win ib. 

Empirical Disquisition 159 

Apparatus of Digestion ib. 

Nature and Physic 162 

Emperor of China 163 

Francis J. de Valangin, M. D 164 

Maxwell Garthsbore, M. D 165 

Surgical Address 166 

Materia Medica 167 

Evidence on a Murder 172 

Zacultis 187 

Lettsom and Brodum 1 88 

Daniel Turner 190 

The Two Mortars ib. 

Winslow 191 

Case of Ligature of the Arteria Innominata 193 

Dr. Barker 196 

Professional Secrecy Rewarded 197 

Wesley's Cure for Rupture ib. 

Anthony Stark, M. D 1 98 

Joshua Ward ib. 

Dr. M'Ghie 199 

Dr. Arbuthnot 200 

Odium Medicorum 201 

Dr. Monro and Dr. Battie 204 

Mineral Waters 205 

The Acme of Medical Honours 206 

Peter Lowe's Epitaph , ib.. 



CONTENTS. IX 

PAGE 

Dissection 207 

Percival Pott 209 

Jean Pitard 210 

Charles Peters 211 

Dr. William Cullen 212 

Sir Hans Sloane, Bart 214 

John Partridge 217 

Chemistry 218 

Games adapted to the Members of the Medical 

Profession 222 

Rabelais 224 

Dentist 225 

William Salmon 226 

Baron Haller's System of Physiology 227 

George Skene, M. D 232 

Insensible Perspiration 233 

Physicians of Spain 235 

Medical Attendant 236 

ParacelsuB 238 

Ambrose Pare 239 

Charles Patin „ 240 

The Conscientious Physician ib. 

Origin of the Barber's Pole 241 

Law and Physic ; an Eastern Apologue 242 

The Universal Remedy 243 

Artificial Palate ib. 

Sir Samuel Garth 245 

Dropsy 247 

A Simile, by Dr. Garth 250 

The Medical Character ib. 

Philemon Holland 252 

Acetate of Morphine 254 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Anatomy First Encouraged 256 

William Butler, M. D ib. 

Discovery of Lithotomy 260 

Enthusiasm of Medical Students 261 

Master John Halle 264 

Apothecaries' Charges 265 

A Physician of Queen Elizabeth 268 

William Butts ,f ib. 

Surgery 269 

Mark Akenside, M. D 271 

Monstrous Crania 273 

The Art of Prescribing 274 

Jenner and the Foreign Potentates 975 

Smoking 278 

Revival of the Humoral Pathology ib. 

Morbus Pedicularis 2S0 

William Clowes ib. 

Antijjalhies 281 

Analysis of Venous Blood 282 

Utility of Medical Consultations 285 

Qualities of a Good Physician 288 









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MEDICINE 



MEDICAL MEN 



HERMAN BOERHAAVE. 

" Fifty years are now elapsed," says Haller, 
" since I was the disciple of the immortal Boer- 
haave; but his image is continually present to 
my mind ; I have always before me the venera- 
ble simplicity of that great man, who possessed, 
in an eminent degree, the power of persuasion. 

Boerhaave wrote, in Latin, a commentary on 
his own life; in which, in the third person, he 
takes notice of his opinions, of his studies, and 
of his pursuits. In his lectures he constantly 
calls Sydenham the British Hippocrates. 

Music and gardening were the usual amuse- 
ments of Boerhaave. In the latter part of his 
life his great pleasure was to retire to his coun- 
try-seat near Leyden, where he had a garden 
of eight acres, encircled with all the exotic 
shrubs and plants he could procure, that would 

VOL. II. b 



4, MEDICINE AND 

live in that soil. " Thus," says Dr. Lobb, " the 
amusement of the youth and of the age of this 
great man was of the same kind — the cultivation 
of plants ; an employment coeval with mankind, 
the first to which necessity compelled them, 
and the last to which, wearied with the tire- 
some round of varieties, they are fond of re- 
treating, as to the most innocent and entertain- 
ing recreation. 

Boerhaave was buried in the great church 
of Leyden, under a large marble urn, thus sim- 
ply inscribed :— 

Salutifero Boerhaavii Genio 
Sacr. 

It has been mentioned, to the honor of Boer- 
haave, by one of his biographers, that he re- 
ceived the visits of three crowned heads, — the 
grand-duke of Tuscany, William the Third, and 
Peter the Great; the last of whom slept in his 
barge all night, over against the professor's 
house, that he might have two hours' conversa- 
tion with him before he gave his lectures. These 
visits assuredly did more honor to the princes 
than to the philosopher, whose power, like 
that of the poets mentioned by Charles the 
»inth, in his Epistle to Rosnard, is exercised 
upon the minds, while that of the sovereign 
is confined to the bodies of mankind. 



MEDICAL MEN. 



ROBERT RECORDE. 



Fuller mentions it as a remarkable circum- 
stance, that Wales had three eminent physicians 
and writers who were contemporaries, viz. Re- 
corde, Phayer, and Hyll. 

Robert Recorde was educated at Oxford ; 
and, in 1531, was elected fellow of All-Souls 
College. He was created doctor of medi- 
cine, at Cambridge, 1545; before and after 
which, it is said, that he taught arithmetic at 
Oxford, and to have excelled all his predeces- 
sors in rendering this branch of knowledge clear 
and familiar. He is also mentioned as having 
been remarkably skilled in rhetoric, astronomy, 
geometry, music, and mineralogy. He was 
well acquainted with the Saxon language; and 
made large collections of historical and other 
ancient MSS. To these various studies he 
joined that of divinity, and was attached to the 
principles of the reformers. Notwithstanding 
he was justly regarded as a prodigy of learning 
and parts, like many of the past and present 
day, it does not appear that he met with en- 
couragement adequate to his merits, since all 
that is further known of him is, that he died 
in the King's Bench prison, where he was con- 
fined for debt, in the year 1558. 
B 2 



4 MEDICINE AND 

His principal works are the following : — 
" The Ground of Arts, both in whole Numbers 
and Fractions," 1540. — There is a republica- 
tion of this, printed in 1570, London, 12mo, 
In the Epistle Dedicatory, which is addressed 
to King Edward VI., he says, 

" He has omitted some things, -which were not to be 
published -without his highness's approbation, namely, be- 
cause in them is declared all the rates of alloyes for all 
standards, from one ounce upward, with other mysteries 
of mynte matters ; and, also, most parte of the varieties 
of coynes that have bin currant in this your Majestie's 
realm by the space almost of six hundred yeares laste past ; 
and many of them that were currant in the tyme that the 
Romans ruled heer. All which, with the ancient descrip- 
tion of Englande and Ireland, and the simple censure of 
the same, I have almost completed to be exhibited to your 
highnesse." 

As the coin was most notoriously adulterated 
by the ministers of Edward, this publication, 
probably, was not encouraged. 

" The Whetstone of Wit ;" a second part to 
the former. 

" The Pathway to Knowledge, containing the 
First Principles of Geometry." 

" The Castle of Knowledge, containing the 
Explanation of the Sphere." 

" The Urinal of Pbysick." This is dedicated 
in 1547, and was reprinted in London in the 
Years 1582, 1599, and 1665. Haller, in his 



MEDICAL MEN. 5 

■ Biblioth. Anat.' mentions it as containing a 
description of the urinary vessels with figures. 

" The Judicial of Urines." This is supposed 
the same as the former, with the exception of 
a different title. It is a short, but very metho- 
dical treatise, full of divisions and subdivisions, 
relative to the different kinds of urines, and the 
prognostics* to be deduced from them. He, 
however, candidly acknowledges, at the com- 
mencement of his work, that the judgment to 
be formed of diseases, from the appearances of 
the urine, is not so certain as some have repre- 
sented. His next books are 

" Of Anatomy." — " Of Auricular Confes- 
sion." — " Of the Eucharist." — " The Image of 
a true Commonwealth." 

BAEBER-SURGEONS COMPANY. 

It was in the early part of the professional 
career of the celebrated Mr. Pott, that the sur- 
geons separated themselves from the Company 
of Barbers. (The remains of the ancient hall 



* Robert Recorde, it would appear, claims the honor- 
able distinction of being, at least, the first English piddle 
doctor of whom we have any account. His worthy imi- 
tator, Dr. Cameron, may, therefore, look back with 
feelings of pride and exultation on his memorable prede- 
cessor. 



G 



MKDICiNE AND 



of the latter are well worth the inspection of 
the curious ; their elegant anatomical theatre, 
constructed of cedar wood, curiously wrought, 
was sold for the price of the materials.) Being 
desirous of giving his vote, on the occasion of 
some city election, he presented himself as a 
member of the Barber-Surgeons' company. 
" No, no," said the scrutineer, " you may still 
be a shaver, Mr. Pott, but you have not been 
a barber these five years." 

physician's vacation. 

Sir Thomas Browne, upon the canicular- 
days, thus expresses himself, in his usually af- 
fected style: "There generally passeth an 
opinion, that, during those days, all medication, 
or use of physic, is to be declined, and the 
cure committed unto nature. And, therefore, 
as though there were any variation in nature, or 
justiliums imaginable in professions, whose sub- 
ject is natural, and under no intermissive, but 
constant way of mutation ; this season is com- 
monly termed the physician's vacation, and 
stands so received by most men. Which con- 
ceit, however general, is not only erroneous, 
but unnatural ; and, subsisting upon founda- 
tions either false, uncertain, mistaken or misap- 
plied, deserves not of mankind that indubitable 
assent it findeth." (Vulgar Errors, bk. iv. p. 256.) 



MEDICAL MEN. 7 

GEORGE OWEN, M. D. 

Was bom at Worcester, and educated at 
Oxford. He became probationer-fellow of Mer- 
lon College, in 1519, and took out his degrees 
in physic, that of doctor being conferred upon 
him in 1527. He was one of the physicians to 
Henry VIII., in which office he also served his 
successors, King Edward IV. and Queen Mary. 
Although he was a man of high character in his 
profession, there are, notwithstanding his ex- 
alted station at court, and the testimony of 
respectable contemporaries, very few particu- 
lars in his life important enough to be related 
or recorded. He was one of the witnesses to 
the will of Henry VIII., who left him a legacy 
of £100. It was reported, that the succeeding 
prince was brought into the world by Dr. 
Owen's means, who performed the Caesarian 
section on his mother. In the first year of 
Queen Mary, he was very instrumental in ob- 
taining an act for the confirmation and enlarge- 
ment of the powers granted to the College of 
Physicians. A descendant of Dr. Owen's was 
condemned to death, in 1615, for maintaining 
the legality of killing a prince excommunicated 
by the pope. 

Dr. Owen died, Oct. 10, 1558, of an epide- 
mic ague, an account of which is given by Dr. 



8 MEDICINE AND 

Caius, in his Annals of the College of Physi- 
cians; of which the following is a copy : — 

" Tertio die Octobris, A. D. 1558, electio praesidis erat, 
quod postridie divi Michaelis et statuto esse nequibat; 
distractis hinc inde omnibus Collegis in populi subsidium ; 
qui febribus tertianis, duplicibus tertianis, et tertianis con- 
tinuis ita vexabatur populariter per omnem mensem 
Augusti et Septembris, per que universam insulam Bri- 
tanniam, perinde ac peste aliqua, ut nullus locus quieti 
aut privatis negotiis esse potuit. Ex hoc morbo periere 
multi, non in urbe solum, sed ruri etiam ; inter quos Ur- 
banus Huys erat, quod dolens refero, ex immodica fatiga- 
tione per sestus graviores, dum aulicos curaret, morbo 
correptus. 

" Per eos menses vix erant sani, qui eegris ministrarent ; 
vix messores qui messem meterent, aut in horreum recol- 
ligerent. Hos morbos exceperunt quartans populari- 
ter, ut non alias aeque per hominum memoriam; et aliquot 
quintanae et octonse etiam, sed hae breves et sine periculo : 
Ma? plurimos de vita sustulerunt, Hores videlicet gravitatis, 
consilii et aetatis maturae, ex his Georgius Owenus erat, 
regius medicus et doctor Oxoniens, qui obiit, &c." 

EDWARD JORDEN 

Was born in Kent, 1596, and educated at 
Hart-Hall, Oxford. After completing his studies, 
he travelled, and visited several foreign uni- 
versities, and took his degrees at Padua. He 
narrowly escaped being assassinated by a Jesuit 
for having too warmly advocated the Protestant 
religion. An instance of his good sense is re- 



MEDICAL MEN. if 

corded in the following circumstance. One 
Ann Gunter appeared to have a disorder attend- 
ed with symptoms so strange and singular, that 
they were imputed to witchcraft. King Jame"s 
hearing of the matter, sent her to Jorden, who 
soon found reason to suspect her of being an 
impostor. Being confirmed in this opinion, by 
certain experiments, he acquainted the king 
with it; and, by proper management, his 
majesty brought the woman to confess that she 
had counterfeited her extraordinary fits, at the 
instigation of her father, with a design of fixing 
the odium of witchcraft upon a female neigh- 
bour who had quarrelled with him. 

The circumstance which brought about Dr. 
Jorden's marriage are, rather of a singular na- 
ture. He happened to be benighted on Salis- 
bury Plain ; when, meeting a shepherd, of whom 
he enquired the nearest place of entertainment, 
he was directed to the house of a Mr. Jordan, 
a hospitable and independent gentleman in that 
neighbourhood. Considering the similarity of 
names a good omen, the doctor rode to the 
spot, where he was kindly received, and where 
he proved so agreeable to his host, that he gave 
him his daughter, with a considerable fortune. 
He died in his sixty-third year, Jan. 7th, 1632, 
and was buried at St. Peter and St. Paul's 
church, Bath. 



10 MEDICINE AND 

OLAUS WORMIUS. 

Tins learned Danish physician commenced his 
studies in his native place, hut early removed to 
Marburg, and thence to Strashurgh, where he 
first applied himself to physic, which science 
he afterwards pursued successfully at Basil, un- 
der Platerus and others. His uncommon abili- 
ties procured him distinguished honours at the 
University of Padua, at which place he made 
some stay previous to his visiting France. His 
design was to have made a long abode at Paris, 
but the assassination of Henry IV., which hap- 
pened in 1610, about two months after his 
arrival, obliged him as well as others to leave 
that city for fear of disagreeable consequences; 
accordingly, he went directly to Holland, and 
thence returned to Denmark : as he had not yet 
visited the University of Copenhagen, his first 
care was to repair thither, and to be admitted 
a member of it. He was physician to the king 
and Court of Denmark; and Christian IV., as a 
recompence for his services, conferred on him a 
canonry of Lundern. He died in 1654, aged 66. 

PRESCRIBING AND THINKING. 

Even the patent or quack medicines, as they 
are frequently called, are not always bad drugs. 
Many of them, no doubt, are insignificant ; but 



MEDICAL MEN. 11 

many of them, as we have frequent opportunities 
of discovering by their characteristic effects, are 
nothing but our own best known and most ac- 
tive medicines, under new names, and variously 
disguised : for example, aloes, jalap, antimony, 
quicksilver, arsenic, opium, and above all, bran- 
dy. But these quack medicines, which a physi- 
cian or surgeon, who knew what they were, might 
employ with safety and advantage, are every 
year pernicious to thousands, by being rashly, 
indiscriminately, and improperly used. The 
case is just the same, when the like powerful 
medicines, under their proper names, are em- 
ployed by ignorant or negligent practitioners, 
though of the regular faculty. 

STATE OF MEDICINE IN CHINA. 

In the greatest, most ancient, and most civi- 
lized empire on the face of the earth, an empire 
that was great, populous, and highly civilized, 
two thousand years ago, when this country was 
as savage as New Zealand is at present, no such 
good medical aid can be obtained among the 
people of it, as a smart boy of sixteen, who has 
been twelve months apprentice to a good and 
well-employed London apothecary, might rea- 
sonably be expected to afford. '"According to 
th« information which was received from the 
late Dr. Gillan, a physician of Scotland, who 



12 MEDICINE AND 

was at Pekin, and passed all through China, with 
the British embassy, in that vast empire, they 
neither know the use of blood-letting, nor the 
way to set a broken bone : but this is no doubt 
greatly exaggerated. 

SIR THOMAS ELYOT, M.D. 

The author of the " Castell of Health," a 
work published in 1541, was eminent in various 
branches of learning, as well as the patron and 
friend of learned men, in Henry VIII.'s reign. 

The " Castell of Health" was greatly esteem- 
ed, as a production of no mean description, not 
only by the public in general, but by some of 
the faculty in his time; and is, indeed, entitled 
to as much notice as any of the works of that 
age. Sir Thomas, though not of the medical 
profession, is no less jealous of his book, which 
he attempts to vindicate and explain, by stating 
to some objections raised against it, that the 
" Castell of Health" is said to have been first 
published in 1541, yet my edition of that year 
is asserted to be corrected, and, in some places, 
augmented by the first author thereof." It was 
reprinted in 1572, 1580, and 1585, thus under- 
going four editions. 

The writer in his preface, in answer to any 
objection that might be raised against his work, 
from his supposed ignorance of medical science, 



MEDICAL MEN. 13 

gives an account of the manner lie acquired this 
branch of knowledge; which is worthy of be- 
ing quoted, on account of the course of reading 
mentioned in it. " Before," says he, " that I 
was twenty years old, a worshipful physician, 
and one of the most renowned, at that time, in 
England, read unto me the works of Galen, of 
temperaments and natural faculties ; the intro- 
duction of Johannicius, with some of the apho- 
risms of Hippocrates. And, afterwards, by 
mine own study I read over, in order, the more 
part of the works of Hippocrates, Galen, Ori- 
basius, Paulus, Celsus, Alexander Trallianus, 
Plenius, the one and the other, with Dioscori- 
des. Nor did I omit to read the long canons of 
Avicenna, the commentaries of Averrhoes, the 
practices of Isaac, Haliabbas, Rhases, Mesue ; 
and also, of the more part of them which were 
their aggregators and followers. And, although 
I have never been at Montpellier, Padua, nor 
Salem, yet 1 have found something in physic 
whereby I have taken no little profit concerning 
mine own health." 

" His acquaintance with these eminent au- 
thors," observes a late writer, " is sufficiently 
evinced in his own work by his frequent refer- 
ences to them, and his adopting all the theory 
of Galen with its numerous distinctions and 
divisions. It cannot be expected that much of 



14 MEDICINE AND 

original matter should be found in a writer so 
circumstanced. On the whole, his rules for 
diet and regimen, when not drawn from Galeni- 
cal theory, are founded upon plain good sense ; 
and he uniformly inculcates temperance of 
every kind. This he carries to a degree, with 
regard to certain enjoyments, that would, I pre- 
sume, be generally thought somewhat too rigo- 
rous, except by such a bridegroom as the old 
gentleman in La Fontaine, who would be pleased 
with our knight's authority to add all the months, 
from April to October, to the red-letter days of 
his kalendar. 

This author, in speaking of different kinds of 
drink, makes the following remark with respect 
to cider drinkers: "Who that will diligently 
mark in the countries where cider is used for a 
common drink, the men and women have the 
colour of their visage palid, and the skin of their 
visage rivelled, although that they be young."* 
From another passage we learn that the disease 

* The qualities of the cider in some counties have been 
a subject of much disquisition ; and from this passage it 
will appear, that suspicions concerning the unwholesome- 
ness of this liquor are of long standing. The Devonshire 
cholic, or dry belly-ache, from its frequent occurrence in 
Devonshire and other cider counties, gives every founda- 
tion for the belief that there is some noxious property in 
the cider not yet detected. 



-MEUICAL MEN. 15 

now called " a cold, " began to be common in 
England in his time. " At this present time," 
he says, " in this realm of England there is not 
any one more annoyance to the health of man's 
body, than distillations from the head, called 
rheums." The cause of this complaint being 
more frequent then, than forty years before, he 
supposes to be " banquettings after supper, and 
drinking much, specially wine a little after 
sleep;" and also covering up the head too hot; 
a practice which prevailed to such a degree, 
that he tells us, " now a-days, if a boy of seven 
years of age, or a young man of twenty years, 
have not two caps on his head, he and his 
friends will think that he may not continue in 
health ; and yet, if the inner cap be not of vel- 
vet, or satin, a sewing. 

ATTAINMENT OF LONG LIFE. 

Sir William Paulett, who died in the reign 
of Queen, at the age of 97, gave the following 
reply to a person who enquired how he had 
preserved his health : 

Late supping I forebear ; 

Wine and women I forswear; 

My neck and feet I keep from cold ; 

No marvel then though I be old : 

I am a willow not an oak, 

I chide, but never hurt with stroke. 



16 



MEDICINE AND 



JAMES COYTIER, PHYSICIAN TO CHARLES 
XI. OF FRANCE. 

The only circumstance worthy of note during 
this man's career, was the singular dexterity 
which he shewed in managing his sovereign, 
who, without any single principle that could be 
laid hold of, had an intense fear of death, of 
which contemptible cowardice Coytier took the 
advantage ; and by often threatening his master 
with a speedy dissolution, managed to obtain 
from him, from time to time, innumerable im- 
portant favours. Louis, however, once recovered 
strength of mind enough to be ashamed of his 
imbecility; and feeling a momentary resentment 
for what he then conceived to be an insolence 
of his physician, ordered him to be privately 
dispatched. Coytier, apprised of this by the 
officer, who was his friend, replied : " that the 
only concern he felt about himself was, not that 
he must die, but that the king could not survive 
him more than five days ; that he knew this by 
a particular science, and only mentioned it to 
him in confidence, as an intimate friend." Louis, 
informed of this, was more frightened than ever, 
and ordered Coytier to be at large as usual. 

The following letter to M. Cadonel, prior of 
Notre Dame de Selles, written by Louis, his 
cowardly master, is truly characteristic. — " Sir 



MEDICAL MEN. 17 

Prior, my friend, I most earnestly entreat you to 
pray to God and our Lady of Selles for me, that 
they will be so good as to give me a quartan 
ague. For my physicians tell me, that I have a 
disorder of which I cannot recover, unless I am 
so fortunate as to have the quartan ague. When 
I get it, I will immediately let you know." 

DANIEL KENRICUS 

Practised as a physician at Worcester, about 
1685. He was not a graduate, nor very able 
in his profession; but was esteemed a man 
of wit, and a jolly companion. The following 
lines, printed in the fifth volume of Dryden's 
Miscellany, " upon a giant angling," are said 
to have been written by him, viz. — 

" His angle-rod made of a sturdy oak, 
His line a cable that in storms ne'er broke, 
His hook he baited with a dragon's tail, 
And sat upon a rock and bob'd for whale." 

ADVENTURE OF A LONDON DRUGGIST. 

A London druggist, being in a country town, 
in the course of his summer ride, to ask the com- 
mands arid take the money of his very good 
friends the apothecaries, iu pure simplicity of 
heart invited each of them to sup with bint at 
a tavern the same night. All promised; all 
came; but one by one. When the second came 

VOL. II. c 



18 MEDICINE AND 

in, the first, without saying a word, took up hfs 
hat and went away. Enter No. 3; exit No. 2 ; 
and so on to the very last of eight or ten of them. 
Of course, No. 10 and the London druggist had 
supper enough ! Next morning, the Druggist, 
meeting one of the deserters, expressed his con- 
cern at having lost the pleasure of his company 
the evening before. " What the devil, Sir, do 
you think I would sit in company with such a 
scoundrel as — — ?" and he got the same 
answer in substance from, every one of them.. 

ABERNETHY. 

This distinguished surgeon was born in Lon- 
don, about the year 1755. He commenced his 
professional studies under Mr. Charles Blike, one 
of the surgeons of St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 
On the death of Mr. Pott, Mr. Abernethy be- 
came assistant-surgeon to St. Bartholomew's, 
and succeeded Mr. P. as lecturer on anatomy 
and surgery. Mr. Abernethy's class continued 
for a few years to be very small, owing to Dr. 
Marshall, who had been long giving lectures in 
the neighbourhood ; about this time, however, 
he began to establish the high reputation he has 
since acquired, by the publication of some phy- 
siological essays, and a work on the treatment 
of lumbar abscess. On Dr. Marshall relin- 
quishing his lectures, about twenty years since^ 



MEDICAL MEtt. 19 

Mr. Abernethy's class became much increased 
iu number; and he then began to be known as a 
practitioner, and engaged a gentleman to under- 
take the office of demonstrator, to enable him to 
attend more to his private practice. 

Mr. Abernethy, as an author, next produced 
his Surgical Essays ; where he published an 
account of the cases in which he had tied the 
external iliac artery. This was certainly a bold 
and meritorious operation, yet the means of 
preserving life in this way, in cases of aneurism 
of the inguinal artery, were obvious ; though the 
attempt was considered so hazardous, as hardly 
to afford a hope of success ; indeed, it was not 
until some French surgeons had witnessed it, 
that it could gain credit at Paris. This improve- 
ment in operative surgery established his fame, 
and the credit of the English school throughout 
Europe. 

St. Bartholomew's Hospital, on the death Oi 
Pott, fell off in reputation as a school for sur- 
gery, and had not Dr. Marshall given lectures 
near if, it would have been almost deserted. 
It has, however, advanced with the fame of Mr. 
Abernethy, and is now among the first in the 
metropolis. Mr. Abernethy is, unquestionably, 
as excellent and complete a teacher on ana- 
tomy, surgery, and pathology, as there is in 
London; for his mode of teaching is peculiar f» 
c2 



20 MEDICINE AND 

himself. On anatomy, he is not very minute ; . 
he considers this can only be thoroughly learned 
in the dissecting-room ; but the eloquence and 
energy of his manner, and the various pleasing 
illusions he introduces, gives such an interest to 
what he delivers, as does not fail to gain the 
attention of his pupils, and incite them to far- 
ther pursuits. Prefatory to a particular descrip- 
tion of the bones, he adduces some general 
remarks on the particular subjects, which usually 
lead to reflections beyond the common topics of 
the schools. 

Mr. A., at the same time, is careful to point 
out the nature of those accidents and diseases 
connected with the immediate subject of his 
discourse. In passing over the skeleton, he 
adverts to the varieties of fracture and disloca- 
tion, and the obstacles bones may themselves 
oppose to their reduction. When he treats on 
the ligaments and muscles, he again notices that 
important part of surgery, and shews the farther 
considerations requisite for reducing them: thus 
impressing the information on the minds of his 
pupils, and leaving them to form a full and par- 
ticular estimate of the means of repairing those 
injuries. In his surgical lectures, he is also a 
judicious teacher. He is particularly zealous 
in shewing that the education of a surgeon is 
never complete ; that his whole life must be a 



MKD1CAL MEN. 21 

course of study. If one mode of treatment does 
not answer in disease, or be»ins to fail in its 
efficacy, another is to be employed ; and a dis- 
eased action is to be followed up unremittingly 
until it begins to wear itself out, when wc may 
be successful in finally removing it. And in 
considering likewise the effect of remedial mea- 
sures employed, we must be careful, he observes, 
to notice the circumstances under which they 
failed, and under which they succeeded. Thus 
we find, throughout England, that, among the 
younger race of surgeons, the pupils of Mr. 
Abernethy are behind none; and are generally 
safe and judicious practitioners. He has uni- 
formly opposed the division of surgery into 
distinct departments, as those of the oculist, 
the dentist, and the aurist; considering they are 
essentially connected, and that no properly edu- 
cated man can be ignorant of the diseases which 
those departments embrace. A few years since, 
when an infirmary for these diseases was about 
to be established by a few medical men, who 
had got the names of many of the principal sur- 
geons to sanction it, and who called on Mr. 
Abernethy, to request that he would allow his 
name to be inserted among those of the presi- 
dents, not doubting of his acquiescence ; he 
replied — " I see no good that can arise from 
this to the public ; it may be of use to the sur- 



22 MEDICINE AND 

geons, but I candidly tell you, I consider it 
quackery, and I will never lend my name to 
sanction it: every surgeon should be acquainted' 
with the diseases of the organs of sight and 
hearing; and, to detach them from regular sur- 
gery, would be not less injurious to the science, 
than oppressive to the public." 



At Antwerp, a countryman coming into a 
perfumer's shop, fell into a swoon, but was 
speedily recovered by rubbing his face aud nose 
all over with horse-dung ! 

THE RUFFIAN PHLEBOTHOMIST. 

An Italian, mentioned by Solenander, was on 
his death-bed; when a man whom he had 
aggrieved, though told he was in a dying state, 
resolved, in the Italian way, to do the business 
with his own hands. He enters the chamber, 
gives the sick man a desperate stab, and so 
departs. By the flux of blood (for it seems he 
required bleeding,) he quite recovered. 

Sir Edmund King bled King Charles II. for 
apoplexy, putting the rigour of the law at de- 
fiance, in case of failure of success. He suc- 
ceeded, and one thousand pounds reward was 
ordered to him. " But," says Burnet, " he. 
was never paid." 



medical men. 23 

bichat's theory of life. 

Marie Francis Xavier Bichat was born 1771. 
He studied under the celebrated Desault, whom 
he assisted to the end of his life in his practice, 
in his studies, and in his lectures. At the age 
of twenty-seven he published his treatise on the 
membranes; and, in the succeeding year, his 
researches upon life and death. His next work 
was his general anatomy; and he began a work 
on descriptive anatomy, of which he lived to 
complete only two volumes. He died in 1802, 
in the 31st year of his age, greatly esteemed and 
regretted. 

According to M. Bichat, every thing around 
living bodies tends constantly to their destruc- 
tion. And to this influence they would neces- 
sarily yield, were they not gifted with some 
permanent principle of re-action. This principle 
is their life, and a living system is, therefore, 
necessarily always engaged in the performance 
of functions, whose object is to resist death. 
Life, however, does not consist in a single prin- 
ciple, as has been taught by some celebrated 
writers — by Stahl, Van Helmont, Barthez, &c. 
We are to study the phenomena of life as we do 
those of other matter, and refer the operations 
performed in living systems to such ultimate 
principles as we can trace them to, in the same 



24 MEDICINE AND 

way that we do the operations taking place 
among inorganic substances. 

The chemist refers the phenomena of his 
science to the chemical ; the natural philoso- 
pher, to the physical properties of matter. So 
in physiology, we are to analyse the functions 
as we study them, and thus discover the pro- 
perties or powers of living systems, to which 
they are to be attributed. 

Living systems, in this manner, are found to 
be endowed with certain properties, powers, or 
principles, the chief of which are those of feel- 
ing and moving, by whose possession their 
organs are rendered capable of performing the 
functions upon which the continuance of life 
depends. 

Life, then, according to Bichat, is the state 
of being, produced by the possession and exer- 
cise of what he calls the vital properties; yet 
he does not always adhere with logical strictness 
to this definition, but rather uses the term some- 
times to designate, collectively, the vital proper- 
ties themselves ; and this, perhaps, is the best 
and most convenient sense. His essential doc- 
trine however is, that there is no one single in- 
dividual presiding principle of vitality, which 
animates the body ; but that it is a collection of 
matter gifted for a time with certain powers of 
action, combined into organs which are thus 



MF.DICAL MEN. 25 

enabled to act ; and that the result is a series 
of functions, the connected performance of which, 
constitutes it a living thing. 

This is Bichat's view of life, considered in the 
general and most simple way. But in carrying 
the examination further, he points out two 
remarkable modifications of life, as viewed 
in different relations, one common both to 
animals and vegetables, the other peculiar 
to animals. The vegetable exists entirely 
within itself, and, for itself, depending upon 
other substances only for the materials of 
nutrition ; the animal, on the contrary, in addi- 
tion to this eternal life, has another, by which he 
cements himself with objects about him, main- 
tains relations with them, and is bound to them 
by the ties of mutual dependance. This affords 
a principle upon which to form a distinct clas- 
sification of our functions. Those which we 
have in common with the vegetable, which are 
necessary merely to an individual bodily exist- 
ence, are called the functions of organic life, be- 
cause they are common to all organised matter. 
Those, on the other hand, which are peculiar to 
animals, which in them are superadded to the 
possession of the organic functions, are called 
the functions of animal life. 

Physiologically speaking, then, we have two 
lives, the concurrence of which enables us to 
live, move, and have our being ; both equally. 



26 MEDICINE AND 

necessary to the relations we maintain as human 
beings, but not equally necessary to the simple 
existence of a living thing. By our organic life, 
food proper for our nutrition is first submitted 
to the operation of digestion, is then thrown into 
the circulation, undergoes in the lungs the 
changes which respiration is intended to effect, 
is then distributed to the organs to be applied 
to their nutrition ; from theie, after a certain 
period, it is removed by absorption, thrown 
again into the circulation, and discharged, at 
length, from the system by means of the several 
exhalations and secretions. 

This is the life by which all the parts of the 
body are kept in a state of repair ; it is the life 
of waste and supply; necessarily subservient 
to the performance of those functions which 
are the distinguishing characteristics of our 
nature, but not at all engaged itself in their 
performance. 

By our animal life, on the contrary, we be- 
come related to the world about us; the senses 
convey to us a knowledge of the existence of 
other things, beside ourselves; a knowledge 
also of their qualities and their capacities for 
producing pleasure or pain; we feel, we reflect, 
we judge, we will, and re-act upon external 
things, by means of the organs of locomotion 
and tone; according to the result of these men- 
tal operations, we become capable of commu- 



MEDICAL MEN. 27 

nicating and receiving pleasure and pain, hap- 
piness and misery. In fact, by the organic life 
we merely exist negatively; by the animal, that 
existence becomes a blessing or a curse, a 
source of enjoyment or of suffering. 

BUISSON'S MODIFICATIONS OF BICHAT'S 
THEORY OF LIFE. 

After the death of Bichat, a work was pub- 
lished by M. F. R. Buisson, embracing the same 
parts of physiology as the Researches of Bichat, 
but with some modifications of his views, which 
however had been submitted to his revisal, and 
met with his approbation. 

Buisson was a particular friend of Bichat, 
and one of the editors of the three posthumous 
volumes of the Anatomie Descriptive. Man he 
defines to be an intelligence administered (servie) 
by organs; and, upon this view of his nature, 
founds a physiological classification, the same 
in effect as that of Bichat. The organs are of 
two classes: — 1. Those immediately subser- 
vient to the purposes of intelligence, such as 
the eye, the ear, the organs of locomotion, of 
voice, &c. and these, taken together, form the 
active life. 2. Those not immediately connect- 
ed with the intelligence, and not under its con- 
troul, which are yet necessary to it, from nou- 
rishing and preserving the instruments with 



28 MEDICINE AND 

which it does immediately operate, such as the. 
stomach, the heart, the lungs, &c. ; these form 
the nutritive lift. This division, it is obvious, 
does not differ essentially from that ofBichat; 
although perhaps a more original and beautiful 
point of view from which to look at man, as a 
subject of physiology, it is less perfectly appli- 
cable to life, considered as a whole, and possess- 
ed by a long series of animals and vegetables. 

DR. KING. 

In " Evelyn's Memoirs," we find the following 
account of Edmund King, knt. M.D., physician 
to Charles II. 

This gentleman was originally a surgeon, and, 
at a critical moment, saved the king's life, by 
bleeding him. 

" 1655, 4 Feb. I went to London, hearing his majesty 
had been, the Monday before, (2 Feb.) surprised in his 
bed-chamber with an apoplectic fit, so that, if by God's 
providence, Dr. King, (that excellent chirurgeon as well as 
physitian) had not been accidentally present, to let him 
blood (having his lancet in his pocket), his majesty had 
certainly died that moment, which might have been of 
direful consequence, there being nobody else present with 
the king, save this doctor and one more, as I am assured. 
It was a mark of the extraordinary dexterity, resolution, 
and presence of mind, in the doctor, to let him blood, in 
the very paroxysm, without staying the coming of other 
physitians, which regularly should have been don, and for 
want of which he must have a regular pardon, as they tell' 



MEDICAL MEN. 20 

MEDICINE AND SURGERY AMONG THE 
ABORIGINES OF NEW HOLLAND. 

The New Hollanders have few diseases, but 
such as arise among those near towns from in- 
temperance and neglect of themselves ; like the 
white inhabitants, they are subject to bowel 
complaints, and they consider the gum of the 
mimosa a sovereign remedy in these disorders. 
It has not been ascertained whether they ob- 
tained the knowledge of any medicinal virtues 
this gum possesses from the colonists, or the 
colonists from them ; but they both make use 
of it, and consider it of great service in dysen- 
tery. The root of the fern they consider diure- 
tic, and they use it in gonorrhoea, and other 
affections of the urinary organs. This, it is 
believed, is the extent of their medicinal skill. 
Their native doctors never venture further. The 
chief part of their art is confined to charms, 
which consist in repeating some set words over 
the patient; but of the meaning of them, or 
their supposed efficacy, no other information 
could be obtained than they deemed it right 
always to undergo such a ceremony when they 
are very ill. The headman of the tribe is very 
generally doctor. They are fond of applying 
to the European medical men for advice, but 
they can seldom be got to take medicine. A 



30 



JltuiiinD At 



glass of Bengal rum, or, in the colonial phra- 
seology, "bull," is their great panacea; and 
to it they resort whenever they can obtain it. 
In this respect they implicitly follow the prac- 
tice of their civilized brethren, among whom 
Bengal rum forms the only enjoyment when 
well, and the only medicine when ill." 

The surgery of the native tribes is equally 
simple with their medical practice, but more 
efficacious. When bit by snakes, which is 
with them a frequent occurrence, they make a 
ligature above the wound, scarify it with a shell, 
or any sharp instrument they possess, and 
then suck it for a considerable time. The wo- 
men exercise this branch of the art; and, when 
they are at hand, the colonists, who meet with 
accidents of this kind, always apply to them; 
and if this simple operation be performed soon 
after the injury is inflicted, the deleterious 
effects of the poison are generally prevented. 

NONNIUS 

Was author of a treatise entitled, " Dieleticon, 
she de Re cibaria," which, in these days, might 
perhaps be interpreted, ' Peptic Precepts.' — 
He was a great stickler for the wholesomeness 
of fish diet, and wrote a book called " Itchyo- 
phagia; sen de usu Piscium," in which fish is 
shown to be the most salutary and proper ali~ 



MEDICAL MEN. 31 

nient, for all descriptions of persons, sick or 
sound, fat or lean, old or young, according to 
the opinions of more ancient physicians, who 
have written " De salubri Piscium Alimento." 

SPECIFIC. 

Dr. Tronchin, of Paris, made spare diet 
always one of the first of his prescriptions. 
" 'Tis the best way (he said) to cut off the 
enemy's provisions ; that is already a great 
point gained." 

HYDROPHOBIA. 

Dr. Plot, the Oxfordshire historian, wrote a 
strange letter, from Rochester, to his friend Dr. 
Charlett, August 18, 1693. " The greatest ra- 
rity that I met with here, viz. a medicine for 
the bite of a mad-dog, which was applied to 
Doctor de Langley, prebend of Canterbury, his 
wife and his fair daughter, who were all three 
dipt in salt-water, a little below the bridge, 
without fig-leaves, last Friday morning, by two 
lewd (unlearned) fellows of this town; the spec- 
tators, you may be sure, being very numerous." 
(Bodleian Papers, vol.i. p. 58.) Shortly after, 
another remedy, for this disorder, appeared in 
France, which we extract from the treatise en- 
titled - La Medccine Aisee," written by M. Le 
Clerc, Counseilleir Medecin du Roi, published 



32 MEDICINE AND 

at Paris, in 1719. Vide page 103. — " Pour la 
curede la play e, mettez dessus du poll du chien 
qui a mordu. C'est le remede de Pare."* 

NOSES. 

Lavater considers the nose as the fulcrum 
of the brain, and describes it as a piece of 
gothic architecture. " It is in the nose that 
the arch of the forehead properly rests, the 
weight of which, but for this, would merci- 
lessly crush the cheeks and the mouth." He 
enters into the philosophy of noses with divert- 
ing enthusiasm, and finally concludes, " Non 
cuique datum est habere nasum ;" — it is not 
every one's good fortune to have a nose ! 

THE PHYSICIAN AND POET. 

Louis XIV. one day, seeing Moliere along 
with M. Mauvilain, his physician, thus address- 
ed the former: — "So, Moliere! you have got 
your doctor along with you, 1 see: — Now what, 
in the name of wonder, can you and he have to 
do together?'' — " With submission to your ma- 
jesty," returned the poet, " we have a great 
deal to say to each other: Monsieur M. pre- 
scribes medicines for me, which I never take, 
and so — I get better." 

* For the cure of the wound, put some of the same 
dog's hair upon it. This is Pare's remedy. 



MEDICAL MEN. 33 

APOPLEXY DEFINED. 

A man of wit has said, that a slight attack 
of the apoplexy is a notice to quit. Another 
has called it a personal summons to death. 
When the Marquis de la Fare, the writer of 
some light and elegant poetry, was asked how 
he did, he used always to reply, " I expect 
the apoplexy ;" he died, in effect, of this dis- 
ease. 

WOODWARD. 

Among the prints which adorn Ward's ' Lives 
of the Gresham Professors,' is a view of Gre- 
sham college, with a gate-way, entering from 
Broad-street, marked 25. Within are the 
figures of two persons, the one standing and 
the other kneeling; these represent Dr. Mead, 
and Dr. Woodward the professor of physic 
there, and allude to a transaction of which 
the following- is the history. In the exercise 
of his profession, Dr. Woodward had said or 
done something that had given offence to Dr. 
Mead. Mead, resenting it, was determined to 
have satisfaction, and meeting Woodward in this 
place, when he was returning to his lodgings in 
the college, drew, as did his adversary; but 
Mead, having obtained the advantage of him, 
commanded him to beg his life. Woodward 

VOL. II. D 



34 MEDICINE AND 

answered, with some wit, " No, doctor, that I 
will not till I am your patient." However, he 
yielded, and his submission is marked by a 
situation which represents him tendering his 
sword. Dr. Mead was the friend and patron 
of Ward, which may possibly account for the 
above fact being so singularly recorded. 

WILLIAM STUKELY, M. D. 

The useful life of this physician terminated 
in three days from the commencement of a 
paralytic stroke, with which he was attacked. 
Business calling his housekeeper away, who had 
just been reading to him, according to custom ; 
on her return he said to her, witli a smile of 
complacence on his countenance, " Sally, an 
accident has happened since you have been 
absent." — " Pray, sir, what is that]" — " No less 
than a stroke of the palsy." — Sally replied, " I 
hope not, sir," and began to weep. — " Nay, do 
not trouble yourself," said the doctor, " but 
get me some help to carry me up-stairs, for I 
shall never come down again but on men's 
shoulders." His words proved but too prophe- 
tically true. 

DEATH OF DESCARTES. 

This eminent philosopher, while passing over 
the bridge at Stockholm, was seized with a 



MKUICAL MKN. 35 

severe fit of cold, on which he reasoned in the 
following manner: — "Cold," said he, "con- 
denses fluids and all other bodies ; heat, on the 
contrary, rarities thern ; consequently, brandy 
must be a specific in this case, let us drink 
some then." He drank largely and died. 

Such is the story commonly reported relative to 
the death of this great man, who was not himself 
proof against the equivocal inductions deduced 
from the hypothetical speculations of a warm 
and enthusiastic imagination. Goris, however, 
states, that his death was occasioned by drink- 
ing brandy during a hot fever, contrary to the 
advice of his physician, who, nevertheless, ac- 
cording to M. de Voltaire, (Letlr. Philosoph.) 
and others, mortally hated him. 

DR. MONSEY AND A CLERGYMAN. 

No one who pretended to understand Mon- 
sey's character, can forget that it was impossi- 
ble for folly or affectation to pass undetected, 
and, seldom, with impunity, in his company. 

A young clergyman, whose sound under- 
standing and good heart were undisputable, 
was affected with a solemn theatrical mode of 
speaking at times, accompanied with a mincing, 
finical gesture, bordering on the coxcomb. This 
foible did not escape the eagle-eye of his friend, 
who well knew his worth, and would not hurt 
d 2 



36 MEDICINE AND 

liis feelings; the doctor, therefore, took an 
opportunity, when they were alone, to censure 
him, and agreed that, whenever he saw the 
" affected dramalica," as he called it, coming 
on, as a signal, always to offer him his snuff- 
box, with two smart raps on the lid of it, to 
prevent him from lapsing into such an erro- 
neous habit. The gentleman alluded to, as a 
sterling proof of his good sense, spoke ever 
afterwards of that circumstance with gratitude. 
A visible improvement in the deportment of the 
young divine took place, and Mousey was very 
prohably instrumental in procuring preferment 
for him, as well as in his obtaining a wife with 
a handsome dower. 

BOERHAAVE AND PERUVIAN BARK. 

Boerhaave observed, that it could have been 
wished the Peruvian bark had never been 
known; " for," says he, "it has killed more 
people than all the armies of Louis XIV." This 
antipathy to the bark, however, did not origi- 
nate with any prejudice he might have enter- 
tained against the virtue and use of this drug; 
but, on the contrary, from the ignorance of 
physicians, who did not know how to prescribe 
with sufficient discretion to produce the salu- 
tary advantages that are known to attend its 
judicious administration. A little natioual pre- 



MEDICAL MEN. 37 

judice, no doubt, came in for a share of this 
aversion. It is reasoning wrong to condemn a 
good thing because a bad use is made of it; his 
argument was retorted upon the physicians ; he 
felt all the force of the application, and laughed 
heartily; which, in fact, is the best reply this 
great man could have made. — Aliquando bonus 
dormitut Homerus. 

A SURGEON WHALE-CATCHER. 

Although by no means a successful surgeon, 
John Sheldon flattered himself with the whim- 
sical notion that he had discovered an easy 
method of catching whales, by means of poi- 
soued harpoons ; and he actually made a voyage 
to Greenland for the purpose of putting his 
experiment to the test. 

A SURGEON-AERONAUT. 

Mr. Sheldon was also a great patroniser of 
aeronauts, and he boasted of being the first 
Englishman who made an experimental ascent, 
concerning which, the following anecdote is 
related: — At the time Blanchard descended 
from one of his aerial voyages, in a garden 
adjacent to Mr. Lochie's, he was very ur- 
gent with Sheldon, previous to the ascent, to 
alight, and suffer him to make his excursion 
alone. Sheldon, however, would not comply ; 



38 MEDICINE AND 

in consequence of which, a short dispute took 
place. " If you are my friend," said Blan- 
chard, " you will alight. My fame, my all, 
depend on my success." Still Sheldon was 
positive; on which, the little aeronaut, in a vio- 
lent passion, swore, " By gar, he would starve 
him. Point du chicken; you shall have no 
chicken, by gar," said the Frenchman; and, 
exclaiming this, he threw out every morsel of 
their provision, which, lightening the balloon, 
they ascended majestically, amidst the cheers 
and good wishes of an overwhelming multitude. 

BLOOD-LETTFNG. 

A Surgeon, after having attended during 
more than two months, and cured the wife of 
a shepherd, who had a very dangerous disor- 
der, requested nothing for his cure, neither 
for the remedies he had provided, because he 
knew the state of misery to which this family 
was reduced : the shepherd, however, very 
desirous to express his gratitude, recollected 
that his benefactor took snuff. He bought a 
snuff box, made of box wood, and engraved on 
the lid the figure of a young woman sitting, 
whom a surgeon is bleeding, with this inscrip- 
tion around, " I wound thee to cure 
thee." He then offered the box to his Escu- 
Iapius, who received it with much pleasure, 



MEDICAL MEN. 30 

Several who have seen it, judge the performance 
not unworthy of our best artists. 

DR. JOHN CASE, A QUACK, 

Who succeeded the equally-renowned Lilly, 
whose magical instruments he possessed, had the 
following couplets affixed, the first on his door, 
the other on his pill-boxes : — 

" Within this place 
Ljivss Doctor Case." 

" Here's fourteen Pills for thirteen-pence, 
Enough in any man's own conscience." 

DR. RADCLIFFE AND DR. CASE. 

" Whole troops of quacks shall join us on the place, 
From great Kirleus down to Dr. Case." — Garth. 

Granger says, the following anecdote of Case 
was communicated to him by the Rev. Mr. Gos- 
ling, in these terms: 

" Dr. Maundy, formerly of Canterbury, told 
me, that, in his travels abroad, some eminent 
physician, who had been in England, gave him 
a token to spend, at his return, with Dr. Rad- 
cliffe and Dr. Case. They fixed on an evening, 
and were very merry, when Radcliffe thus began 
a health : — " Here, brother Case, is to all the 
fools your patients." — " I thank you, good bro- 



40 MEDICINE AND 

ther," replied Case; " let me have all the fools, 
and you are heartily welcome to the rest of the 
practice." 

dr. darwin's repartee. 

It is well known that Dr. Darwin had a con- 
siderable impediment in his speech. This, 
however, did not prevent many flashes of keen 
sarcastic wit. An apothecary, whose know- 
ledge of his profession was, we trust, superior 
to his politeness, while receiving the doctor's 
instructions relative to a patient, observed 
what a pity it was that a man of his great 
abilities should stammer so much. " Not so 
much to be regretted as you suppose, sir," 
sputtered the doctor, " for it gives a man 
time to think before he speaks." 

DR. SANGRADO. 

The original Dr. Sangrado was one Philip 
Hecquet, M. D. a Frenchman, who practised 
in Abbeville, where he was born, and in Paris, 
where he died in 1773, aged 76. 

He was a great advocate for the lancet and 
copious draughts of warm water — a practice 
which caused him to be immortalized in the 
romance of Gil Bias, under the name of Doc- 
tor Sangrado. He also observed considerable 
abstinence, having eat neither meat nor drank 



MEDICAL MEN. 41 

wine for thirty years before his death. He 
published several works, &c. 

" C'est un erreur de penscr que le sang soit 
necessaire a la conservation de la vie; on nepeut 
trop saigner une malade;"* are the words he is 
made lo utter by the facetious Le Sage. And, 
with respect to low diet, he says, " J'ai pour 
garants de mon sentiment, sur le regime ruaigre, 
les medecins les plus fameux tant anciens que 
moderns." t He appears, also, to have been a 
very conscientious practitioner, since he rigidly 
and consistently observes, " loin d'imputer la 
mort du chanoine d la boisson et aux saignees, il 
sortit en disant, d'un air froid, qu' on ne lui 
avoit pas tire assez de sang, ni fait boire assez 
d'eau chaude," &c.| 

SIR ROBERT TALBOT. 

When this gentleman went to Versailles, for 
the purpose of trying the effects of the Peru- 



* " It is an error to think that the blood is necessary 
for the preservation of life; a patient cannot be bled 
too much." 

t " In support of my opinion, on low diet, I have the 
authority of the most eminent ancient and modern philo- 
sophers." 

J " Far from laying the blame of the canon's death to 
drinking hot-water and bleeding, he went out, coolly ob- 
serving, that enough blood had not been taken away; 



42 MEDICINE AND 

vian bark* on the young dauphin, only son of 
Louis XIV. who had long been severely labour- 
ing under an intermittent fever, the physicians, 
who were about the prince, did not think pro- 
per to allow him to prescribe to their royal 
patient, until they had asked him some medical 
questions. Amongst others, they desired him 
to describe to them what an intermittent fever 
was? He replied, " Gentlemen, it is a disease 
which I can cure, and which you cannot." 

THE ANTI-CONNUBIAL APOSTATE. 
Thomas Brown, M. D., who died in 1683, was 
the author of a work entitled, " Religio Medici," 
a paradoxical book, translated into almost 
every language in Europe. He was of opinion, 
that love was a folly beneath the dignity of a 
philosopher: and says, "he could be content 
that we might procreate like trees without con- 
junction." This learned gentleman and pla- 
tonic sentimentalist soon descended, however, 
from his philosophic dignity, and married an 
agreeable woman. 

His reason for marrying was, " because he 
could discover no better method of procreation." 

neither had he drank a sufficient quantity of warm- 
water." 

* Monsieur D'Aquin, one of the French King's physi- 
cians, in his '* Memoir on Bark," makes a rather unhappy 



MEDICAL MEN. 43 

THE PREDICTION VERIFIED. 

Dr. Garthshore, when a surgeon at Upping- 
ham, in Rutland, wrote to Dr., afterwards Sir 
George Baker, exhorting hi in to " make a bold 
dash and come to London," which he did, pro- 
bably in consequence of this invitation. In a 
subsequent letter, Sir George speaks of his own 
success, and of the gratification he had in hear- 
ing that Lord Sondes had said, that "Dr. Baker 
was a very able and learned man, who, he was 
sure, would rise to the head of his profes- 
sion, and some day be physician to the king." 
This prediction was, in fact, verified ; for he 
did actually become physician to the king, and 
was assuredly the most learned practitioner of 
his day. 

LIEUTAND. 

The first use this celebrated anatomist made 
of his appointment, as physician to the king, 
was to advise his majesty to be inoculated. 
Certainly, a very bold advice from a man, in 
particular, who was well acquainted with the 



though curious blunder, by taking Mantissa, the title to 
the " Appendix to the History of Plants," by Johnstone, 
for the name of an author, " who," he says, " is so ex- 
tremely rare, that he knows him only by name." 



44 MEDICINE AND 

incredible fury willi which it was then opposed. 
Notwithstanding that Lieutand had always been 
a stranger to the life and manners of a court, he 
soon, however, became a great favourite. One 
day, when the king was speaking to him of 
the many physicians whose abilities his cour- 
tiers had very much praised, he asked him whe- 
ther these accounts were not very much exag- 
gerated ? " Sire," said he, " these physicians 
possess none of the qualities of which you have 
heard, but it is often with this kind of money 
that the gentlemen of the court pay their phy- 
sicians." 

SIR WILLIAM PETTY. 

Of this singular genius, Evelyn furnishes us 
with the following anecdote: 

" March 27, 1675, supped at Sir William 
Petty's with the Bishop of Salisbury, and divers 
honourable persons. We had a noble enter- 
tainment in a house gloriously furnish'd ; the 
master and mistress of it were extraordinary per- 
sons. Sir William was the son of a meane man 
somewhere in Sussex, and went from schole to 
Oxon, where he studied philosophy, but was 
most eminent in mathematics and mechanics:* 



* At the age of fifteen, he was master of many lan- 
guages, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, navigation, and 



MEDICAL MKN. 45 

proceeded doctor of physic, and was grown 
famous for his learning; so for his recovering 
a poor wench that had been hanged for felony; 
and her body having been begged (as the cus- 
torae is) for the anatomic lecture, he bled her, 
put her to bed to a warm woman, and with 
spirits and other meanes restor'd her to life. 
The young scholars joyn'd and made her a 
little portion, and married her to a man who 
had several children by her, she living fifteen 
years after, as I have been assured." 

MONSEY AND HINGESTONE. 

Doctor Monsey used to ridicule his neigh- 
bour Hingestone, by asserting, that the nave of a 
wheel, in the motion of a carriage, turned twice 
round for every time the outer circle, at (he end 
of the spokes, turned once. Though, in taking 
a front view of Monsey, he was very different, 
yet, in following Hingestone, there was a strik- 

malhematics. He became afterwards an anatomist and 
chemist, had a fine hand for drawing, was a skilful mecha- 
nic, and a good surveyor; and, above all, understood poli- 
tical arithmetic better than any man of his age. He drew 
up an account of the wealth and expences of the nation, 
in a treatise, called " Verbum Sapienti," a curious con- 
trast, with its present resources, when he estimates that 
" England can bear the enormous charge of four millions 
per annum, when the occasions of government require it." 



46 MEDICINE AND 

ing resemblance in his wig, stooping, and gait. 
" Is that Doctor Monsey 1 ?" asked a gentleman 
of Chelsea, who mistook him for the doctor as 
he passed his window. " I hope not," said 
Hingestone, turning round as he spoke. 

DEATH OF RABELAIS. 

When Rabelais, who was a physician, was 
lying on his death-bed, and they had given him 
the extreme unction, a friend called and asked 
him, "How he did?" Rabelais answered, "I 
am going my journey; they have greased my 
boots already." 

DR. A. KING'S INVITATION. 

A proof of Hogarth's propensity to mert-i- 
ment, on the most trivial occasions, is observa- 
ble on one of his cards, requesting the company 
of Dr. Arnold King to dine with him at the 
Mitre. Within a circle, to which a knife and 
fork are supporters, the written part is con- 
tained. In the centre is drawn a pie, with a 
mitre on the top of it; and the invitation of our 
artist concludes with the following sport on the 
Greek letters, to eta, beta, pi. The rest of the 
inscription is not very accurately spelt. 



MEDICAL MEN. 47 

SIR CHARLES SCARBOROUGH, 

Seeing the Duchess of Portsmouth eat to 
excess, said to her, with his usual frankness, 
" Madam, I will deal with you as a physician 
should do ; you must eat less, use more exercise, 
take phi/sic, or be sick." 

THE THREE CHARACTERS OF A PHYSICIAN. 

Enricus Cord us, who never received his fees 
till the termination of his patients' disease, 
describes, in a facetious epigram, the practi- 
tioner at three different periods of his attend- 
ance, in three different characters. 

Tres medicus habet facies, unam, quando rogatur, 
Angelicam ; mox est, cum juvat, ipse Deus. 
Post ubi curato, poscit sua preemia, morbo, 
Horridus apparet, terribilisque sathan. 

i Translated thus : 

Three faces wears the doctor; when first sought 
An angel's ! — and a god's, the cure half wrought : 
But when, that cure complete, he seeks his fee, 
The Devil then looks less terrible than he. 

CONVALESCENCE. 

The following conversation once passed be- 
tween Bouvart and a French marquis, whom 
he had attended during a long and severe indis- 



48 MEDICINE AND 

position. One day, when the former called, he 
was thus addressed by the marquis: — "Good 
day to you, Mr. Bouvart; I feel quite in spirits, 
and think my fever has left me." — " I am sure 
of it," replied the doctor; " your very first ex- 
pression convinced me of it." — " Pray explain 
yourself." — "Nothing more easy; in the first 
stage of your illness, when your life was in 
clanger, I was your dearest friend ; as you began 
to get better, I was your good Bouvart; and 
now, I am Mr. Bouvart. Depend upon it, you 
are quite recovered." 

THE LAST RESOURCE. 

A countryman condemned to be hanged, and 
about to suffer the sentence, sent for a surgeon ; 
to whom he said: — "I have never been bled, 
sir; but, having heard it said, that the first lot- 
ting of blood saves the life, I beg you to perform 
the operation on me." * 

"WALPOLE AND MONSEY. 

Sir Robert Walpole knew and valued the 
worth of his ' Norfolk doctor,' as he called him. 
Monsey knew it, and neglected it. The prime- 
minister was fond of billiards, at which the doc- 
tor very much excelled him. " How happens 
it," said Sir Robert, in his social hour, " that 



MEDICAL MEN. 49 

nobody will beat me at billiards, or contradict 
me, but Doctor Monsey?" —"Others," said the 
doctor, " get places; I get a dinner and praise." 

DR. SYDENHAM 

Tells a curious story of one of his patients, 
who had consulted him for a length of time, 
with very little relief to his complaint; when, 
at length, the doctor told him, that he could 
really do no more for him; but, that there was a 
Dr. Robinson, at Inverness, who was wonder- 
fully clever in such complaints as his; that he 
would give him a letter to the physician, and, he 
was confident he would return cured. As the 
patient was a gentleman of fortune, he was soon 
enabled to set out on his journey. But, what 
was his surprise, when, on arriving at Inverness, 
lie found there was no physician of that name, 
nor had there been, within the recollection 
of any inhabitant in the town. The patient 
returned, vowing every thing that was hostile 
to Dr. Sydenham. When he arrived he indig- 
nantly told the doctor that he thought he had 
used him very ill, to send him a journey of 
so many miles for nothing. " Well," says Dr. 
Sydenham, " are you in better health 1" — 
" Yes," replied the gentleman, " 1 am well now, 
but no thanks to you." — " No !" returned the 
doctor, " but you may thank Dr. Robinson for 

VOL. II. E 



50 MEDICINE AND 

curing you. I wanted to send you a journey, 
with an object in view, which I knew would do 
you good; in going, you bad Dr. Robinson in 
contemplation; and, in returning, you were 
equally busy in thinking about scolding me." 

BEAUTY. 
4 
Euripides said of persons that were beauti- 
ful, and yet somewhat advanced in years, " In 
fairest bodies not only the spring is beautiful, 
but also the autumn." 

CHEVALIER TAYLOR. 

Among Dr. King's " Anecdotes of his Own 
Times," p. 131, he says, " I was at Tunbridge 
in 1758, where I met with the Chevalier Tay- 
lor, the oculist. He seems to understand the 
anatomy of the eye perfectly well ; he has a 
fine hand and good instruments, and performs 
all his operations with great dexterity ; but he 
undertakes every thing, (even impossible cases) 
and promises every thing. No charlatan ever 
appeared with fitter and more excellent talents, 
or to greater advantage; he has a good person, 
is a natural orator, and has a faculty of learn- 
ing foreign languages. He has travelled over 
all Europe, and has always with him an equi- 
page suitable to a man of the first quality, and 
has been introduced to most of the sovereign 



MEDICAL MEN. 51 

princes, from vvlioni lie has received many marks 
of their liberality and esteem." 

Dr. King has drawn his character in Latin, 
which begins 

Hie est, hie vir est, 

Quam docti, indoctique omnes impense mirantur, 

Johannes Taylor : 

Coecigenorum, ccecorum et coecitentium 

Quot quot sunt ubique, 

Spes uncia. Solamen Salus. 

Taylor is also alluded to in some lines ad- 
dressed to the celebrated Mrs. Mapp. 

Next, traveU'd Taylor fill'd us with surprise, 
Who pours new light upon the blindest eyes ; 
Each journal tells his circuit through the land ; 
Each journal tells the blessings of his hand ; 
And, lest some hireling scribbler of the town 
Injures his history, he writes his own. 
We read the long accounts with wonder o'er ; 
Had he wrote less, we had believed him more. 

ADVERTISEMENT. 

Wanted for a family, who have bad health, a 
sober, steady person, in the capacity of doc- 
tor, surgeon, apothecary, and man-midwife. He 
must occasionally act in the capacity of butler, 
and dress hair and wigs. He will be required 
to read prayers occasionally, and to preach a 
sermon every Sunday. The reason of thi» 
K 2 



52 MEDICINE AND 

advertisement is, that the family cannot any 
longer afford the expences of the physical 
tribe, and wish to be at a certain expence for 
their bodies and souls. A good salary will be 
given. 

THE OATH OF HIPPOCRATES. 

I swear by Apollo, 1 he physician, by iEscu- 
lapius, by his daughters Hvgeia and Pomarea, 
and by all the gods and goddesses, that, to the 
best of my power and judgment, I will faith- 
fully observe this oath and obligation. The 
master that hath instructed me in the art, I will 
esteem as my parent, and supply, as occasion 
may require, with the comforts and necessaries 
of life. His children 1 will regard as my own 
brothers ; and, if they desire to learn, I will 
instrust them in the same art without any re- 
ward or obligation. The precepts, the expla- 
nations, or whatever else belongs to the art, 
I will communicate to my own children, to the 
children of my master, to such other pupils as 
have subscribed to the physician's oath, and to 
no other persons. My patients shall be treated 
by me, to the best of my power and judgment, 
in the most salutary manner, without any 
injury or violence; I will neither be prevailed 
upon, by any other, to administer pernicious 
physic, or be the author of such advice myself. 



MEDICAL MEN. 53 

Cutting for the stone I will not meddle with, 
but leave it to the operators in that way. To 
whatever house I am sent for, I will always 
make the patient's good my principal aim; 
avoiding, as much as possible, all voluntary 
injury and corruption. And, whatever I hear 
or see in the course of a cure, or otherwise, 
relating to the aftairs of life, nobody shall ever 
know it, if it ought to remain a secret. May 
I be prosperous in life and business, and for 
ever honoured and esteemed by all men, as I 
observe this solemn oath; and may the reverse 
of all this be my portion, if I violate it, and 
forswear it. 

ALCHEMY. 
" Sir Edward Dyer, a grave and wise gentle- 
man, actually believed in Kelly, the alchemist, 
and that he made gold, according to the report. 
Sir Edward even visited Germany, where Kelly 
then was, to satisfy himself fully of the fact. 
After his return, he dined with the Archbihsop 
of Canterbury ; where he met Dr. Brown, 
the physician. The conversation turning on 
Kelly : Sir Edward Dyer, addressing the 
archbishop, said, " I do assure your grace, 
that that I shall tell you is truth ; I was an eye- 
witness thereof; and, if I had not seen it, I 
should not have believed it. \ saw Mr. Kelly 
put some of the base metal into the crucible, 



54 MEDICINE AND 

and after it was set a little upon the fire, and 
a very small quantity of medicine put in, and 
stirred with a stick of wood, it came forth, in 
great proportion, perfect gold; to the touch, 
to the hammer, and to the test." The Arch- 
bishop replied, '• You had need take heed what 
you say, Sir Edward Dyer, for there is an 
infidel at the board." Sir Edward Dyer said 
again, pleasantly, " I should have looked for 
an infidel sooner any where than at your 
grace's table." — " What say you, Dr. Brown?" 
asked the archbishop. Dr. Brown answered, 
in his blunt and eccentric manner, " The gen- 
tleman has spoken enough for one." — "Why," 
said the archbishop, " what hath he said V — 
" Marry," said Dr. Brown, " he said he would 
not have believed it except he had seen it; 
and no more will I." — (Burnett's Own Times.) 

ASTRAGAL 

Is the name of one of the bones which com- 
pose what is commonly call the instep. The 
etymology of the word is probably as follows : 
— The ancient gentry wore on their shoes a 
small half cross, at the place where we fasten 
our buckles. It was of ivory, in order to distin- 
guish it from those worn by the vassals, which 
were of iron or* steel. Ccelius Rhodiginus, a 
celebrated professor of Greek and Latin, at 



MEDICAL MEN. 55 

Milan, in the fifteenth century, calls buckles 
of this kind astragals. The Latin word astra- 
galus signifies that little bone which is at the 
end of the handle of a leg of mutton, and 
which has the appearance of a heel, whence 
comes this ancient adage, " noble to the heel." 

CHARLES DRELINCOURT, M. D. 

The following tributary and elegant stanza 
is paid to the memory of Charles Drelincourt, 
who died in 1697. 

Quel autre peut mieux, O Mortel! 
Dans le Mort t'apprende a reviure, 
Que celui qui, par ce Saint Liure, 
S'est rendre lui-meme immortel? 

TRANSLATION. 

Mortal ! who can better save thy life, 
When at Death's ghastly door you lie; 
Than he who, by this holy book, 
Is gone to immortality ? 

SINGULAR CUSTOM. 

It is the custom in Savoy, says Menage, for 
him who is blooded to receive presents. A 
young man, who had caused himself to be let 
blood, having received one from his sweet- 
heart, wrote to her, — " / thank you for your 
present, for the wound of my arm ; but not for 
that of my heart !" 



Ob MEDICINE AND 

RADCLIFFE AND KNELLER. 

Dr. Radcliffe was a man of great boldness 
and wit, which, not unfrequently, burst 
forth without respect either to place or per- 
son ; even majesty itself was not exempted 
from it ; and his neighbour, Sir Godfrey Knel- 
ler, when he threatened to shut up his garden- 
door, was answered by him, " I care not what 
you do with It, Kneller, so long as you do not 
paint it !" 

SALE OF THE BODY BEFORE DEATH. 

The following curious Letter was found among 
the Papers of a Mr. Goldwyre, Surgeon, of 
Salisbury. 

To Mr. Edward Goldwyre, at his House, 
on the Close of Salisbury. 

Sir, — Being informed that you are the only 
surgeon in this city, (or county) that anatomises 
men; and, I being under the present unhappy 
circumstances, and in a very mean condition, 
would gladly live as long as I can; but, by all 
appearance, I am to be executed next March, 
having no friends on earth that will speak a 
word to save my life, nor send me a morsel of 
bread, to keep life and soul together until that 



MEDICAL MEN. 57 

fatal day; so, if you will vouchsafe to come 
hither, [ will gladly sell you my body, (being 
whole and sound) to be ordered at your discre- 
tion ; knowing that it will rise again at the ge- 
neral resurrection, as well from your house, as 
from the grave. Your answer, sir, will highly 
oblige, 

Your's, &c. 

James Brooke. 

Fisher ton- Anger Goal, 
Oct. 3, 1736. 

INGENIOUS SUBTERFUGE. 

An astrologer, in the time of Lewis XI. ex- 
tricated himself very ingeniously from danger. 
He had foretold to the king, that a lady whom 
he loved should die in eight days ; which 
having happened, the prince caused the astro- 
loger to be brought before him, and command- 
ed his servants not to fail to throw him out 
at the window, at a signal which he would give 
them. As soon as the king saw him — " You, 
who pretend to be such a wise man," says he 
to him, " and who know so exactly the fate 
of others, tell me, this moment, what will be 
your's, and how long you have to live 1" Whe- 
ther it was the astrologer had been secretly 
informed of this design of the king, or that he 
guessed it: — "Sire," answered he, without 



58 MEDICINE AND 

testifying any fear, " I shall die just three days 
before your majesty." — The king, after that 
answer, was not in haste to give the signal for 
them to throw him out of the window : — on the 
contrary, he took particular care to let him 
want for nothing. 

COMPUNCTIOUS VISITINGS. 

It is said of a Swiss physician, that he never 
passed the church-yard of the place where he 
resided, without pulling forth his handker- 
chief from his pocket, and hiding his face with 
it. — Upon this circumstance being noticed by 
an acquaintance, he apologised for it, by say- 
ing, — " You will recollect, sir, what a number 
of people there are, who have found their way 
hither under my directions: — Now, I am al- 
ways apprehensive lest some of them, recogniz- 
ing my features, should lay hold of me, and 
oblige me to take up my lodging along with 
them." 

DR. PITCAIRN, F. E. S. 

Graduated at Glasgow, but, being anxious to 
obtain an English degree in physic, he entered 
at Benets college, Cambridge. He was sub- 
sequently elected physician to St. Bartholo- 
mew's and Christ's hospitals. The late Dr. 



MEDICAL MEN. 59 

Matthew Baiilie was his most intimate friend ; 
and he may be presumed to have attained the 
head of his profession, on the demise of Dr. 
Warren, in 1797. His own death, in 1800, was 
occasioned by the croup. He was interred, in 
St. Bartholomew's church, Smitlifield, in a 
vault containing the remains of his uncle, and 
his father, the gallant Major John Pitcairn, 
who fell at the battle of Bunker's Hill. 

PITCAIRN ON FEVER. 

Dr. Pitcairn was a great enemy to quacks, of 
whom he used to say, that there were not such 
liars in the world, except their patients. A rela- 
tion asking his opinion one day of a certain 
work on fevers, lie observed, " I do not like 
fever curers; we may guide a fever — we can- 
not cure it. What would you think of a pilot 
who attempted to quell a storm? Either posi- 
tion is equally absurd. We must steer the 
ship as well as we can in a storm ; and, in a 
fever, we can only employ patience and judi- 
cious measures to meet the difficulties of the 
case." 

APOTHECARY DEFINED. 

Guy Patin said, "Animal bene faciens paries 
et lucrans mirabiliter ; and adds, also, " they 
were formerly only the valets of physicians, but 



60 MEDICINE AND 

that they were head valets, who gilded the pill 
for themselves, and left the bitterness to the 
physicians." 

l'asthma. 

" Je viens vous conter mon chagrin," — 

Dit Pierrette a son medecin; 
" Mon mari devient asthmatique!" — 
Notre jEsculape lui replique: 
* Rassurez vous ! on voit cette espece de gens 
Souffrir beaucoup, mais vivre tres long terns ; 
Pour se debarrasser il faut qu'on les assome." — 
Pierrete aussitot s'ecria; 
" Monsieur ! faites que mon pauvre homme 
Souffrir le moins qu'il se pourra." 

TRANSLATION. 

" O, my dear doctor ! you are wise ; 

What can be done ?" — old Bridget cries, 
" My husband's got an Mmany, 
And ev'ry hour he's like to die :" — 
" Cheer up— good wife ! — the man is sale enough ;" 
Replies the sage, — " I know the case full well ; 
These teasing, wheezing folk are dev'lish tough ; 
Tis true, they suffer like the damn'd in hell; 
But, ne'er expect to find them dead. 
Unless you fairly knock them on the head." — 
" Well ! well '." — returns the wife, — " what must be, must; 
Dear doctor! then to you I trust; 
O ! do— contrive to make my poor good man 
Suffer — as little as you can!" 

" Strenua nos exercef" Miser ia! 



MEDICAL MEN. Gl 



DR. MONSEY AND GARRICK. 

Dr. Monsey was in habits of the closest 
intimacy with Garrick, whose fascinating 
powers of conversation and elegant manners 
were diametrically opposed to those of Mon- 
sey. The doctor, during a long intercourse 
with the great and gay, invariably maintained 
a plainness of comportment, which was by no 
means an unpleasing one, nor could he ever be 
persuaded to sacrifice sincerity at the shrine of 
abject flattery. He spoke the truth, and what 
sometimes gave offence, " the whole truth, and 
nothing but the truth, &c," which afforded 
frequent opportunity to ignorance and malig- 
nity in crying him down as a cynic ; but it should 
be remembered, that his censure, though se- 
vere, was generally just; and that his shafts 
were directed against vice, folly, and affecta- 
tion. This difference of manners between him 
and Garrick, was productive of a mutual, but 
by no means an unfriendly, interchange of rail- 
lery. To raise a laugh at the doctor's expence, 
was the amusement of many an hour at Hamp- 
ton. 

Garrick, one evening on his return from 
Diury-lane, where he had been performing, 



62 MEDICINE AND 

told the doctor, that wishing to see a favourite 
scene acted by a performer at Covent Garden, 
then very popular, he had slipped from his 
own stage slily, and trusted an underling actor, 
known by the name of Dagger Marr, to supply 
liis place for a few minutes, which was only to 
stand silent and aloof, and that he had returned 
soon enough to resume his part in the dialogue 
of the scene. 

The doctor credulously swallowed the story, 
and readily circulated it with much delight; 
the town enjoyed the joke, and he was heartily 
laughed at for his pains. 

Those wuo were acquainted with Garrick, 
admired and esteemed him ; but they univer- 
sally confessed, that, notwithstanding he eagerly 
sought and enjoyed a joke at another man's ex- 
pence, he was nettled if it was raised at his own. 
Mousey frequently retorted with success. The 
little manager was sore, and lapsed, on one 
particular occasion, into an unjustifiable aspe- 
rity of reply, that called forth the latent spark 
of resentment from the doctor. 

The Bishop of Sodor and Man (Dr. Hildesly, 
who preceded Dr. Wilson) one day observed 
that Garrick certainly 'meant to quit the stage: 
" He never will do it," said Mousey, " as long 
as he knows a guinea is crop on the one side v 



MEDICAL MEN. 63 

and pile on the other."* This expression from 
the doctor was industriously circulated. The 
violence with which it was resented proved 
that it was true; mid the long acquaintance 
that existed between these two celebrated gen- 
tlemen, was closed by an anonymous letter 
sent by Garrick, containing the frequently- 
quoted extract from Horace : — 

" Absentem qui radit amicum," &c. &c. 

a sentiment, which Garrick ought to have 
been the last man to quote, as the eccentric 
oddities of his friend, as he used to term them, 
afforded him constant food, at all times and 
places, for ridiculous anecdote. 

Intimate friends are said to make the most 
inveterate enemies; and Garrick, by his re- 
peated and widely-diffused sarcasm, certainly 
embittered the enmity. Severe recrimination, 
fomented by the ill-timed interference of offici- 
ous meddlers, who enjoyed the quarrel, sub- 
sisted to the last. There were some unfinished 
stanzas, penned by the doctor, during Gar- 
rick's illness, on which occasion many physi- 
cians had been called in. As soon as Garrick 



* A proverbial expression in Norfolk, nearly similar to 
one used in some parts of France, '■ tele ou pile" head or 
tail. 



64 MEDICINE AND 

died, which Monsey did not expect, they were 
instantly destroyed, and he could never be 
prevailed upon to repeat them. The following, 
from recollection, prove how satirical they 
must have been : 

Hsesit lateri lethalis arundo. 

" Seven wise physicians lately met. 
To serve a wretched sinner ; 
Come Tom, says Jack, pray let's be quick, 
Or I shall lose my dinner." 

The consultation then begins, and the case 
of the patient is stated ; after which follows : 

" Some roar'd for rhubarb, jalap some, 
And some cried out for Dover ; 
Let's give him something, each man said — 
Why e"en let's give him — over !" 

This desperate counsel is, however, rejected 
by one of the medical sages, who, after some 
reflections on the life and habits of the pa- 
tient, declares that he has great confidence in 
ehinks, adding — 

" Not dried up skinks, you ninnies; 
The chinking that I recommend, 
's the famous chink of guineas." 

After this, a humourous altercation ensues, 
to determine, by whom this auricular applica- 



MHDICAL MEN. 66 

tion of the purse should be made; with hu- 
mility and politeness towards each other, for 
which physicians are so remarkable, each 
declines tke honour to the superior rank of his 
neighbour. But the poet shrewdly guesses 
thai this backwardness arose from the majority 
of them not chusiug to exhibit the comfortless 
state of their pockets. At length a physi- 
cian, in high repute, prides himself in his 
purse replenished with guineas, which he had 
weighed, found above standard weight, and 
had uot returned to his patients as light: in 
the moment of exultation he exclaims — 

" 1 and my long tales seldom fail 
To earn a seore a day." 

After due solemnity, he approaches the bed- 
side; the curtain is withdrawn, and the glit- 
tering gold shaken at the sick man's ear. 

'•' Soon as the fav'rite sound he heard, 
One faint effort he try'd : 
He op'd his eyes, he stretched his hand, 
lie made one grasp and dy'd.'' 

Lord Bath made a vain attempt to reconcile 
these two old friends: — "I thank you," cried 
Mousey ; but why will your lordship trouble 
yourself with the squabbles of a merry-andrew 
and a quack-doctor I" 

VOL. II. F 



66 MEDICINE AND 

SIR RICHARD JEBB. 

This eminent physician used to tell a story of 
himself, which made even rapacity comical. He 
was attending a nobleman, from whom he had 
a right to expect a fee of five guineas: he re- 
ceived only three. Suspecting some trick on 
the part of the steward, from whom he received 
it, he, at the next visit, contrived to drop three 
guineas. They were picked up, and again de- 
posited in his hand ; but he still continued to 
look on the carpet. His lordship asked if all 
the guineas were found". " There must be two 
still on the floor," replied Sir Richard, " for I 
have but three." The hint was taken as he 
meant. 

CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD. 

There is a passage in a work called " Chris- 
tianissimi Mestitestio," written by Serveties, 
which has been supposed to have given Harvey 
the first idea of the circulation of the blood. 
The following memorable account, however, 
has been given by Boyle, of the circumstances 
which first led to this important discovery:— 

" I remember," says Boyle, " that when I 
asked our famous Harvey, in the only discourse 
I had with him, which was but a little while 
before he died, what were the things which 
induced him to think of a circulation in the 



MEDICAL MEN. 67 

blood ? lie answered me, that when he took no- 
tice that the valves in the veins of so many 
parts of the body were so placed, that they 
gave free passage to the blood towards the 
heart, but opposed the passage of the venal 
blood the contrary way, he was invited to 
think that so provident a cause as nature bad 
not placed so many valves without design ; 
and no design seemed more probable than 
that, since the blood could not well, because 
of the interposing valves, be sent by the veins 
to the heart, it should be sent through the 
arteries and return through the veins, whose 
valves did not oppose its course that way."* 

" SOLA VIRTUS NOBILITAS," 

There is no species of pride, that sits worse 
upon a gentleman, than the pride of being 
merely of high birth, which can never confer 
talents or great abilities. 

For the sake of elucidating the context, She- 
ridan's father may be instanced, who was an 



* In allusion to those who were disposed to dispute with 
Harvey the claim commonly assigned to him among the 
improvers of science, Dr. William Hunter observes, that 
after the disovery of the valves in the veins, which Harvey 
learned while in Italy, from his master, Fabricius ab 
Aquapendente, the remaining step might easily have been 
made by any person of common abilities. 
F 2 



68 MEDICINE AND 

itinerant lecturer, and who earned his living, aa 
well as he could, by shewing — that people should 
call b. a. y. o. n. e. t, bagnet, and s. c. r. v. a. n. t, 
sarvant, and other pleasant little curiosities; 
yet, we regret to say, that even Sherry, after he 
rose in life, had too much of this description of 
petty pride about him. When the late Sylves- 
ter Douglas, who was a very respectable and 
decent man, well and honestly employed in 
various departments, in the course of which he 
translated a poem, called — Reciardetto, was 
made a lord, by the title of Glenbervie, She- 
ridan, while playing at cards, asked " What's 
his title?" — "Glenbervie," was the answer ; on 
which he spoke the following indefensible verse 
while playing his game: — 

" Glenbervie; Glenbervie, 
What's good for the scurvy ? 
But why is the Doctor forgot? 
In his arms he should quarter 
A pestle and mortar, 
For hi3 crest an immense gallipot." 

WILLIAM BUTTER. 

Dr. was one day introduced to Wil- 
liam Butter, a man of singular and coarse man- 
ners, when the latter remarked " There was a 
fellow of your name at Edinburgh when I wa,s 
a pupil there, are you his son?" — " No, Sir, I 



MEDICAL MEN. 69 

am his nephew." — "Nephew ! Well, has he any 
children I " — " Only one, Sir, remaining." — " Re- 
maining ! What, has he lost any 1 " — " Yes, Sir." 
— " Did they die young?" — " Yes, Sir."— ^ 
" Then he miiot go to the devil!" 

DR. JENNER. 

While Dr. Jenner was dining with a large party 
at Bath, something was introduced at the table 
which required to be warmed by being applied 
to the candle, and doubts were expressed by se- 
veral persons present, whether the most speedy 
way would be to keep the flame at a little dis- 
tance under, or to immerse the substance into 
it. Jenner desired the candle to be placed 
near him, and immediately putting his ringer 
into the flame, suffered it to remain some time: 
next, he put his finger above it, but was oblig- 
ed to snatch it away immediately. " This, 
gentlemen," said he, " is a sufficient test." 
The next day he received a note from General 
Smith, who had been of the party on the pre- 
ceding day, and who was, before that time, an 
utter stranger, offering him an appointment in 
India, which would ensure him, in the course 
of two or three years, an annuity of 3000/. 
The offer was referred to his brother, and Dr. 
Jenner, from his attachment to him, declined 
tt. 



70 MEDICINE AND 

SIR WILLIAM READ, 

(A quack doctor,) died in 1715. He was 
knighted by Queen Anne, on which occasion 
the following lines were written on him, by Mr. 
Gwinnett : — 

" The queen, like heaven, shines equally on all. 
Her favours now without distinction fall. 
Great Read, and Slender Hannes, both knighted, show- 
That none their honours shall to merit owe. 
That popish doctrine is exploded quite, 
Or Ralph had been no duke, and Read no knight; 
That none may virtue or their learning plead, 
This has no grace and that can hardly read. 

SURGEON AND ASTRONOMER. 

The king of France, one day, had need of 
being let blood. A young surgeon, who had 
come to his court, in a vessel belonging to our 
East-India Company, was appointed to take rive 
ounces of this precious blood. The Astronomer 
of the quarter cried out, that " the life of the 
King would be endangered, if he were to be 
bled in the present state of the heavens." The 
young man could have replied, that he only 
acted according to the state of the King's 
health ; but he prudently waited some minutes, 
and taking his almanack, "You are in the right, 
great Sir," said he to the Astronomer, " the 
King would have died, if he had been bled at 



MEDICAL MEN. 71 

the instant you spoke — the heavens have changed 
since that time, and it is now a favourable mo- 
ment:" — The Astronomer was convinced, and 
the King bled and cured. By degrees, it has 
become customary to bleed the kings like their 
subjects, when they require it. 

TO JOANNES TAYLOR. 

!n optica expertissimes, multisque in Academiis celeber- 

rimus Membrum. 

The following encomia cede nothing to the former. 

Effigiem Taylor, tibi qui demissus ab alto est, 

Turba alias expers triminis, ecce vides. 
Hie maculas tollit, Cataractus depremit onines 

Amissam splendens excitat ille jubar. 
Miranda praxi sublata ophthalmia quaevis, 

Artifici dextrae Gutta Serena cedit: 
Ecce verum ! ciijus cingantur tempora lauro, 

Dignum, cui laudes saecula longa canant. 

JOHN BELCHIER. 

Tn the Gentleman's Magazine, January 21, 
1743, we find the following circumstance related 
of the above gentleman : " One Captain Wright, 
who, as a patient, came to Mr. Belchier, a sur- 
geon, in Sun-Court; being alone with him in a 
room, clapt a pistol to his breast, demanding 
his money. Mr. Belchier offered him two gui- 
neas, which he refused ; but accepting of six 
guineas and a gold watch, as he was putting 
them in his pocket, Mr. B. took the opportunity 



72. MEDICINE AND 

to pounce upon him, and, after a scuffle, securetT 
him." 

Mr. Belchier related this affair to Mr. Cline, 
in the following manner : Wright, it seemed, 
called upon him with a pretended complaint 
once before, and, on a second visit, when Mr. 
B. assured him he had nothing the matter with 
him, he replied, that that was not all his bu- 
siness, that he wanted his money. Mr. B. had, 
as was usual with him, bolted the door ontthe 
inside. It happened that there were some pic- 
ture-frames on the floor, and, when Belchier 
had given his money, the man lowered his pistol, 
on which Belchier knocked him backwards 
among the picture-frames, and held him till 
the coachman got in at the window. 

Mr. Belchier was a stout, strong, heavy man. 
A few hours before he died, he fell on the floor; 
when his man-servant, not being able to lift 
him, offered to go for help, he said, " No, John, 
I am dying; fetch me a pillow, I may as well 
die here as any where else ;" and shortly after- 
wards he expired. 

GENEROSITY AND BENEVOLENCE. 

A surgeon, in bleeding a lady of quality, had 
the misfortune to prick an artery ; the result 
of which was the death of the patient. In 
making her will, she had the generosity to leave 



MEDICAL MBN. 73 

the surgeon, who was extremely affected, as may 
well be supposed, a life-annuity of eight hundred 
livres, as much for the purpose, said the will, 
of consoling him, as to oblige him never again 
to bleed any body so long as he lived. 

There is a similar instance almost to the above 
in the Journal Encyclopedique of the 15th of 
January, 1773. — A Polish Princess having expe- 
rienced the same misfortune, two days before 
her death, she caused the following to be in- 
serted in her will: — 

" Convinced of the injury that my unfortu- 
nate accident will occasion to the unhappy sur- 
geon who is the cause of my death, I bequeath 
to him a life-annuity of two hundred ducats, 
secured by my estate, and forgive his mistake 
from my heart: I wish that this may indemnify 
him for the discredit which my sorrowful catas- 
trophe will bring upon him." 

JKAN BAPTTSTE VERDUC, M.D. 

Par de nouveau secrets cet excellent genie, 
Penetre la nature, et explique ses ressorts; 
Et ce qu'il nous apprend pour la santfe du corps, 
En prolongeant nos jours eternise sa vie. * 



* By means of new secrets, this excellent genius pene- 
trates nature, and explains her resources; and that what 
he teaches us for the health of the body, by lengthening 
our days, immortalizes his life. 



74 MEDICINE AND 

LINES ON THE TOMB OF DR. JENNER. 

Within this tomb hath found a resting-place 
The great physician of the human race, — 
Immortal Jenner ! — Whose gigantic mind 
Brought life and health to more than half mankind. 
Let rescued infancy his worth proclaim, 
And lisp out blessings on his honour'd name ; 
And radiant beauty drop one grateful tear, 
For beauty's truest friend lies buried here. 

A DANGEROUS BLEEDER. 

The Marechal de being on a journey, 

found himself so unwell, that he was obliged to 
stop at a little village to let blood. The sur- 
geon of the place was sent for, whose embar- 
rassed manner did not inspire much confidence 
to the patient. However, the Marechal gave 
his arm ; which he withdrew a little, when it 
was on the point of being pricked. " It seems 
to me," said the surgeon, " that my lord is 
afraid of bleeding." — " No, not of bleeding, 
but of the bleeder," replied the Marechal. 

DR. RADCLIFFE'S SECRET. 

Radcliffe said to Dr.Mead, one day, — " Mead, 
I love you ; and now I will tell you a sure se- 
cret to make your fortune — use all mankind ill." 
It was reported of him, that he was avaricious, 
and would never pay his bills without a great 
deal of importunity. A paviour, to whom he 




EDTTAKD .TETWEli, M.D. 



MEDICAL MEN. 75 

owed some money, caught him one day just as 
he was getting out of his chariot, at his own 
door, in Bloomsbury-square, and commenced 
dunning him. " Why, you rascal," said the 
doctor, " do you pretend to be paid for such 
■a piece of work? Why, you have spoiled my 
pavement, and then covered it over with earth 
to hide your bad work." — "Doctor," returned 
the paviour, " Mine is not the only bad work 
the earth hides." — " You dog, you," said the 
doctor, " are you a wit? if you are, you must 
be poor — come in and get paid." 

THE CHARIOT OF ANTIMONY. 

Basil Valentine, who lived towards the end 
of the fifteenth cenlury, published a singular 
work, which he called " Currus Triumphalis 
Antimonii." Valentine ranks among the first 
who introduced metallic preparations into medi- 
cine ; and is supposed to have been the first who 
ever used the word antimony. In his " Currus 
Triumphalis Antimonii," after setting forth the 
chemical preparations of that metal, he enume- 
rates their medicinal effects. According to the 
prevailing custom of the age in which he lived, 
he boasts of supernatural assistance ; and his 
work furnishes a good specimen of the contro- 
versial disputes between the chemical physi- 
cians and those of the school of Galen ; the 



76 JIF.DIC1NE AND 

former being attached to active, the latter to 
more simple and inert remedies. 

Valentine's " Chariot of Antimony" opens 
with the most pious exhortations to prayer and 
contemplation, to charity, and benevolence. 
But soon forgetting himself, he hreaks out in 
the following strain of virulence and invective : 
— " Ye wretched and pitiful medicasters, who, 
full of deceit, breathe out I know not what ; 
Thrasonick brags! infamous men! more mad 
than Bacchanalian fools ! who will neither clean 
nor dirty your hands with coals ! you titular 
doctors, who write long scrolls of receipts ! 
you apothecaries, who, with your decoctions, 
fill pots, no less than those in princes' courts, 
in which meal is boiled for the sustenance of 
some hundreds of men! you, I say, who have 
hitherto been blind, suffer a collyrium to he 
poured into your eyes, and permit me to anoint 
them with balsam, that this ignorance may fall 
from your sight, and that you may behold 
truth as in a clear glass !" (veluti in speculum.) 
After continuing in this strain for some time, 
he says, " But I will put an end to my dis- 
course, lest my tears, which are continually 
falling from my eyes, should blot my writing; 
and, whilst I deplore the blindness of the world, 
blemish the lamentation which I would publish 
to all men." 



MEDICAL MEN. 77 

DR. LIONEL LOCKYER. 

This noted empiric died in 1672. Tke follow- 
ing stanza and epitaph art reminiscences of his 
character : 

" The true effigies here you may behold, 
Of him who, for preventing others ill, 
Hath gained a medici. .ir exceeding sold, 
And known, to all the world, for Lockyer's pill." 

His Epitaph record*, that 

" His virtues and his pills are so well-known, 
That envy can't confine them under stone; 
But they'll survive his dust, and not expire 
Till all things else, at the universal fire. 
This verse is lost; his pills embalm him safe 
To future times, without an epitaph." 

THE ABBE DE VOISENON. 

In a disorder which the little Abbe de Voisenon 
had, his physician expressly ordered him to 
drink a quart of ptisan per hour. The doctor, 
on his visit the next day, asked him, " What 
effect the ptisan had produced]" — " Not any," 
replied the abbe. " Have you taken it all?" — 
' I could not take more than half of it." The 
physician appeared very dissatisfied, and almost 
angry; when the abbe said to him, in a soft 
and languishing voice, "Ah! my friend, how 
can you desire me to swallow a quart an hour? 
J hold but a pint." 



78 MEDICINE AND 

FRIEND WALKER. 

The following singular Letter was written by Dr. Walker, 
who accompanied the British Expedition into Egypt, for 
the Purpose of extending Vaccination. 

" John Walker to friends Pemberton, Hewif, 
and Gibson. 

" Health and peace be multiplied unto you, 
inasmuch as I intend to sojourn, for a while, 
in the land of Judea ; and having already a 
companion to go with me thither, who is an 
inhabitant of Bethlem Judea, I turn to you, to 
request that you will commit to remembrance, 
that any letter sent for me to that ship of the 
king's, which is by interpretation called " the 
Thunderer," and* whose sign is the eagle of 
Jupiter, will he likely to reach us in whatever 
part of my journeying it may be. The letters 
I sent to Joseph were directed to the care of 
the wife of him who commanded this ship, and 
may yet be in her keeping ; if so, it will be 
pleasant unto her if ye call on her, and take 
them into your charge. Farewell. 

" Written at Rosetta, on the 18th day of the 
6th month, in the 41st year of the king, when 
his armies came from afar, from the east and 
from the west, and encompassed Cairo about; 
together with the armies of the Arabians and 
the Egvptians, and the Syrians, and they that 
dwell in the land round about the Hellespont, 



MEDICAL MEN. 79 

and in the isles thereof, from the rising even to 
the going down of the sun in the Adriatic. 
And behold the fall of the city ! will it not be 
shortly written in the chronicles of the king? 
and, also, the world shall hear the report 
thereof." 

JUST DISCRIMINATION. 
M. Boudou, an eminent surgeon, was one 
day sent for by the Cardinal du Bois, prime- 
minister of France, to perforin a very serious 
operation upon him. The cardinal, on seeing 
him enter the room, said to him, " You must 
not expect, sir, to treat me in the same rough 
manner as you treat the poor miserable wretches 
at your hospital of the Hotel Dieu." — " My 
lord," replied M. Boudou, with great dignity, 
" every one of those miserable wretches, as your 
eminence is pleased to call them, is, in my eyes, 
a prime-minister." 

apothecary's-hall AT MOSCOW. 
The Apothecaries-hall at Moscow was one 
of the most beautiful, the most rich, and the 
most useful establishments in Europe. This 
building was extensive and elevated ; on one 
side was the dispensary, and on the other the 
departments of the president and his different 
offices. Two other wings served for the labo- 
ratory and the library, with a cabinet of Na» 



80 MEDICINE AND 

tural History. The president had under him 
several officers, who were themselves at the 
head of numerous deputies ; his power extended 
formerly to the punishment of death over those 
under his direction. All the physicians, the 
surgeons, the apothecaries, and the druggists, 
received their salaries at these offices. The 
number of those employed in the service of 
this establishment was very considerable. 

LE CHIMISTE. 

J'eus du ciel en nourissant d'assez grands avantages; 

J'eus toute sorte d'heritages : 
Dans le feu cependant j'ai consume mon bien, 

Apres cent metamorphoses — 

Dieu fit toutes choses de rien, 

Et moi rien de toutes choses. 

Translation. 
God his almighty pow'r display'd, 
When he from nothing all things made: 
With crucible* to work I went, 
And in the fire a fortune spent: 
Reversing just what He had wrought, 
I every thing to nothing brought. 

THE PREDICTION. 

A man in an apoplectic fit made his will; he 
was in perfect possession of his senses, but he 
could only say yes or no, in reply to the no- 
tary's questions. He reckoned the amount 
which the legacies made by his fingers. The 



MEDICAL MEN. 81 

heirs at laws disputed the validity of the will, 
on the ground that the testator was in an un- 
sound state of mind: but it was confirmed by 
the sentence of the parliament of Paris. If 
the anecdote that is related concerning the 

death of L , tire famous painter, who died 

at Loudon in 1682, is true, it must be acknow- 
ledged, that the medical is not always a conjec- 
tural art. A celebrated physician, a friend of 

L , happened to visit him while in his 

laboratory. After looking him in the face, he 
conjured him to quit his work instantly, assur- 
ing him that his health was in great danger; 

L laughed at the advice, but he died of 

apoplexy within an hour after. How happens 
:tj that the name of this physician has not been 
preserved ] 

COXCOMBS OF THE OLD SCHOOL. 

" Each son of Sol, to make him look more big, 
Had on a large, grave, decent, three-tail'd wig : 
His clothes full-trimm'd, with button-holes behind. 
Stiff were (he skirts, with buckram stoutly lin'd ; 
The cloth-cut velvet, or more reverend black, 
Full made, and powder'd half-way down his back; 
Larje decent cuffs, which near the ground did teach 
With half-a-dozen buttons fixed on each. 
Grave were their faces, fixed in solemn state ! 
These men struck awe; their children carried weight. 
In reverend wigs old heads young shoulders bore 
And twenty-five or thirty seem'd three- score."' 
VOL. II. G 



82 MEDICINE AND 

APPELLATIONS DEFINED. 

Lanfranc, an eccentric though not less era. 
dite surgeon, notwithstanding his outre ideas 
on some unimportant subjects, studied under 
William Saliceto, at Milan, and afterwards be- 
came professor of medicine and surgery at the 
same place, and was sent, as early as 1295, to 
Paris, to read public lectures on surgery, and 
to demonstrate the operations. He defines the 
word physicus to imply a physician; medicus, 
a physician-operator or physician-surgeon ; 
and laicus, a barber-surgeon, whom collec- 
tively he also calls " chirurgi barberii," by 
way of derision and contempt, blames the phy- 
sicians for allowing them to practice. "For- 
merly," he observes, " physicians exercised 
the operations of surgery, and did not think it 
beneath them to bleed their patients them- 
selves ; but now it is given up into the hands 
of the barbers. As for me, I always bleed my 
patients with my own hand, and do it more skil- 
fully than the most famous barbers." 

Bleeding, about half a century ago, was con- 
sidered as the exclusive province of the sur- 
geon, and the lancet decidedly a surgical 
instrument; for, in the year 17*49, we find the 
good surgeon Goodman writing against the 
" abuse of phlebotomy, by barbers and other 



MEDICAL MEN. 83 

unskilful persons." At that time our worthy 
forefathers went through a course of bleeding 
and physicking spring and fall. It was then, 
in fact, as usual for a person to call on a prac- 
titioner aud lose blood, as it is now to take a 
dose of Epsom salts. We are informed, that 
Sir Caesar Hawkins, who retired with an ample 
fortune about forty years ago, netted a thou- 
sand guineas per annum by the use of his lancet 
alone. 

APOPLEXY CURED. 

Father Malebranche mentioned, in the Aca- 
demy of Sciences, that a man who had fallen 
into an apoplectic fit was recovered by several 
clysters of coffee. 

THE RIVAL DOCTORS. 

Dr. Cheyne always enforced the doctrines he 
taught, by his personal example. This conduct 
created him a host of enemies, who attacked, 
but never defeated, their intrepid antagonist; 
and the following jeux d'esprits, though often 
related, prove the assertion: — 

DR. WYNTER TO DR. CHEYNE, BATH. 

Tel) me from whence, fat-headed Scot ! 

Thy system thou didst learn ; 
From Hippocrate, thou hadst it not, 

Nor'Celsus, nor Pitcairn. 

G 2 



84 MEDICINE AND 

What, though we own that milk is good,* 

And say the same of grass, 
The one — for babes is proper food, 

The other — for an ass. 

Doctor — a new prescription try — 

A friend's advHee forgive; 
Eat grass — reduce your head — or die, 

Your patients then may live. 

DR. CHEYNE'S REPLY. 

My system, doctor — 's all my own, 

No tutor I pretend; 
My blunders hurt myself alone, 

But your's — your dearest Friend, t 

Were you once more to straw confin'd, 

How happy might it be — 
You would, perhaps, regain your mind. 

Or from your wit get free. 

I can't your new prescription try, 

But easily forgive; 
'Tis nat'ral you should bid me die, 

That you yourself may live. 

BLACKSMITH-OCULIST. 

Chesselden, who is well-known, among other 
things, as having been surgeon to the queen, 
(Caroline) of George the Second, as well as 
surgeon to St. Thomas's hospital, going into an 



* He wrote an Essay on Long Life, wherein he recom- 
mends a milk diet to all valetudinarians. 

t Dr. W. pretended that Dr. Friend was his tutor. 



MEDICAL MEN. 85 

obscure country-town, found a blacksmith, who, 
with the best intention and utmost confidence, 
was in the habit of performing the operation 
for extracting the cataract. Pleased with his 
talents, our celebrated surgeon took pains to 
instruct him; and, at a future time, enquiring 
what had been his success? the man replied, 
" Ah, sir, you spoilt my trade, for after you 
explained to me what I had been doing, I never 
dared try again." 

DR. JOHN ARBUTHNOT, 

A favourite physician of Queen Anne, the 
friend of Swift and Pope, possessed, it is said, 
all the wit of the dean, without any of his 
virulence and indelicacy, and a considerable 
portion of the genius of Pope without his que- 
rulous discontent. When a young man, he 
attempted to settle, as a physician, at Dorches- 
ter, a town remarkable for its healthy situation, 
a circumstance unpropitious to the profitable 
practice of physic. On quitting it, a friend 
met him riding post to London — " Where are 
you going, Arbuthnot V was a natural question : 
" to leave," replied Arbuthnot, " your con- 
founded place, for a man can neither live nor 
die there." 

Arbuthnot affords a striking proof how little 
misfortune can derange or exhaust the internal 



86 MEDICINE AND 

resources of a good man ; for, " I am as well," 
says he, in a letter written a few weeks before 
he died, " as a man can be who is gasping for 
breath, and has a house full of men and women 
unprovided for;" every branch of his family, 
nevertheless, passed through life with compe- 
tence and honour. 

DR. BELLYSE. 

Dr. Bellyse has been a sportsman upwards 
of forty years; and, next to his profession, 
has peculiarly devoted himself to cocking, 
coursing, and the race-course. His grey-hounds 
have long distinguished themselves by their 
speed and true running; and he continues to 
breed from that well-known dog, Champion, 
the property of Captain Lidderdale. His cocks 
have been equally good ; and he is one of the 
few who have preserved the pure breed of 
those dangerous high-flying birds, called 
" Cheshire Piles," for which that county has 
been so long famed in the annals of the sod ; 
and which were so freely backed in the well- 
contested mains of Sir Peter Warburton, Sir 
Windsor Hunlocke, Lord Mexborough, &c. <fec. 
The doctor had only one of these cocks in his 
last main, but he was backed at odds, and won 
his battle cleverly. 

It is, however, as a handicapper, of race- 



MEDICAL MEN. 87 

horses, that Dr. Bellyse stands so pre-eminent ; 
having, it is supposed, put horses nearer toge- 
ther, on various occasions, than any other man 
of his day. Here the doctor has an advantage, 
not merely from observation and judgment, but 
from possessing the clearest recollections of 
past events, and knowing the pedigree, per- 
formance, and qualities of almost every horse 
in England. One instance will be sufficient, in 
confirmation of his ability in this difficult de- 
partment of sporting. 

At Newcastle-under-Lyme, in the year 1820, 
the following horses were handicapped by him: 

st. lbs. 

Sir John Egerton's Astbury, 4 years old 8 6 

Mr. Mytton's Handel, 4 years 7 11 

Sir W. Williams Wynne's Tarragon, 4 years . . 8 
Sir Thomas Stanley's Cedric, 3 years 6 13 

The horses came in as follows : 
Of the first three heats there was no winner; 
Tarragon and Handel being nose and nose; and 
though Astbury is stated to have been third the 
first heat, yet he was so nearly on a level with 
the others, that it was difficult to place him 
where he was. After the second heat, Mr. Lit- 
tleton, who was steward, requested the doctor, 
and two other gentlemen, to look stedfastly at 
the horses, and try to decide in favour of one 
of them, but it was impossible so to do. In 



b6 MEDICINE AND 

the third dead heat, Tarragon and Handel had 
struggled witk each other till they reeled about 
like drunken men, and could scarcely support 
their riders to the scales. Astbury, who had 
lain by after the first heat, then came up and 
won ; and, it is generally believed, that the 
annals of the turf cannot produce such a race 
as this. 

DR. GLYNN. 

The annexed jeu d'esprit, were his portrait 
not a visible evidence against him, proves that 
Robert Glynn, M.D. did not possess the most 
fascinating physiognomy. This gentleman stu- 
died medicine, but, he preferred a college life 
to practice in his profession. After having 
"t been the favourite of society sixty-three years, 
for his wit, learning, and interesting fund of 
anecdotes, he died in 1800, aged eighty-two. 

This morning, quite dead, Tom was found in his bed, 

Altho' he was hearty last night; 
But, 'tis thought, having seen Dr. Glynn in a dream, 

That the poor fellow died of the fright. 

DR. BROCKLESBY AND THE VALET. 

Dr. Brocklesby, (perhaps, best known as the 
medical friend of Dr. Johnson,) being sent for, 
by the Duchess of Richmond, to see her wo- 
man, who was, as the duchess used herself to 
relate, so ill as to be confined to her bed, 



MEDICAL MEN. 89 

was met, in the ball, by t lie duke's valet, the 
woman's husband, and who, either by nature 
or locality, was as warm a politician as the 
doctor. Public affairs being then peculiarly 
critical, they became so interested in debate, 
that the patient was little thought of, as they 
ascended the stairs; nor did the conversation 
relax when they reached the sick-woman's 
chamber. In short, they both left the room, 
returned down-stairs, and the doctor quitted 
Richmond-house, without either being aware 
that tliey neither of them had looked at the 
patient, or spoken to her, or of her. 

DR. FOTHERGILL AND MR. GRENVILLE. 

At the commencement of the American war, 
Mr. Grenville, then in power, wishing to know 
how the quaker colonists stood affected, sent 
a message to Dr. Fothergill, intimating that he 
was indisposed, and desiring to see him in the 
evening. The doctor came ; and his patient 
immediately entering on the popular topic of 
American affairs, drew from him the information 
he wanted. The conversation lasted through a 
large portion of the evening; and it was con- 
cluded by Mr. Grenville's saying, he found 
himself so much better, for the doctor's visit, 
that he would not trouble him to prescribe. 
In parting, Mr. Grenville slipt five guineas 



90 MEDICINE AND 

into the doctor's hand, which Fothergill sur- 
veying, said, with a dry arch tone, " at this 
rate, friend, I will spare thee an hour now and 
then." 

DANGEROUS DESPOTISM. 

The heautiful Austrigilda, wife of Gontran, 
King of Burgundy and Orleans, son of Clo- 
tliaire, on her death-bed requested of her hus- 
band, that the two physicians who had attended 
her in her illness, and to whose remedies she 
pretended ought to be attributed the loss of her 
life, should be buried with her, He had the 
weakness to promise it to her, and the cruelty 
to keep his word. They are, perhaps, the only 
physicians who have had the honour of burial 
in the sepulchre of kings. 

JEAN FERNEL. 

C'est une opinion repandue' qu'il g uerit la 
sterilite de Catherine de Medicis.* Henry is 
reported to have said to him, " Monsieur le 
Medecin, ferez vous bien des enfans k ma fem- 
nie?"t To which Fernel replied, '.'. C'est a 
vous k les faire, et a moi a y appoi ter ce qui 



* It was the current opinion that he cured the barren- 
ness of Catherine de Medicis. 
t Sir, will you make some children for my wife ? 



MEDICAL MEN. 91 

est (le la medecin ordinaire de Dieu pour le 
remede des iufirmites humains;* and, it is add- 
ed, " ce qui reussit si bien, qu' apres dix ans 
de sterilite, la reine donna a cet invincible 
mnnarque, cinq ou six enfans, qui valurent dix 
milles ecus chacun a ce savant mcdecin!"t 

LINNJEUS. 
From a slender beginning this great natura- 
list rose to ease and affluence. Conceiving that 
he had no taste tor literary pursuits, his father 
purposed binding him to a shoemaker, which as- 
suredly would have been his destined occupation, 
had not Dr. Rothman, a neighbouring physician, 
interfered, and who, by discovering the natural 
turn of his mind, supplied him with botanical 
books, and instructed him in the first rudi- 
ments of physic. 

In his botanical excursions, this great philo- 
sopher and observer of nature, was always at- 
tended with a band of trumpets and French 
horns, and usually sallied out at the head of 

* It is your place to make them, and mine to do every 
thing, under the blessing of God, of which our art is 
capable, for the cure of human infirmiUes. 

r Which succeeded so well, that, after a barrenness of 
ten years, the queen gave, to this invincible monarch, five 
or six children, which were worth about ten thousand 
crowns each to this learned physician. 



92 MEDICINE AND 

two or three hundred students, whom he divid r 
ed into detached companies. Whenever lie felt 
inclined, either from accident or design, to ex- 
plain any curious plant, bird, or insect, which 
had either fallen under his own notice, or was 
brought to him by any of his followers, the 
stragglers were called together by the sound of 
music; when, crowding round their eminent 
master, they listened, in respectful silence, with 
the most profound admiration, while he deli- 
vered his observations. 

CULPABLE NEGLECT. 

A young surgeon, soon after his election, had 
occasion to take off a limb at St. Thomas's hos- 
pital, but, in the hurry of business, neglected 
to secure the vessels. The patient, of course, 
expired soon after he was conveyed to bed. It 
will naturally be matter of astonishment that 
such an omission could escape the notice of the 
experienced practitioners at the young man's 
elbow; under these feelings, &c. Chesselden 
wrote as follows : 

"-Poor ! he did as well as he could, 

The crowd who stood round him were guilty of blood!" 

Which shews that although he was the first ope- 
rator in his day, he did not equal Pope in his 
numbers. 



MEDICAL MEN. 93 

DR. HOSTRESHAM. 
Nicholas Hostresham, a physician, who flou- 
rished at the end of the fourteentli century, 
was held in high esteem among the nobility^, as 
well for his conversation as his medical skill. 
— Chaucer, a contemporary poet, alludes to 
him, in the prologue to his " Canterbury 
Tales," among the various personages who 
compose the respectable company of pilgrims, 
at the sign of the Taberde; by introducing, in 
the following manner, a physician, whom he 
characterises a doctor of phi/sic. 

CHAUCER'S DOCTOR OP PHYSIC. 

Wilh us there was a doctor of physik, 

In al the worlde was ther non hym lyk, 

To speke of physik and of surgeryo; 

For he was gToundit in Astronomy. 

He kept his pacient a ful grefc del 

In hourys by his magyk naturel ; 

Wei couth he fortunen the ascendent 

Of his ymagys for his pacient. 

He knew the cause of ev'ry maladye, 

Were it or hot or cold, or moist or drye, 

Where they engendere, and of what humour, 

He was a veray parfyt practysour. 

The «ause yknowe, and of his harm the rote, 

Anon he yaf,» to the syk man his bote.t 

Full redy had he his apothecayres, 

To sendyn him his droggis, and leterwayres,* 

* Gave. t Remedy. $ Electuaries. 



94 MEDICINE AND 

For eche of hem made other for to wynne, 
Her * frenschepe was not nowe to begynne, 

Wei knew he old Esculapius, 
And Dioscordes, and eke Rufus, 
Old Hyppocras, Lylye, and Galien, 
Serapion, Razis, and Avycen, 
Averois, Damascyen, and Constantyn, 
Bernard, and Gadefleun, and Gilbertyn. 

Of his diete mesurable was he, 

For it was non of superfluite, 

But of gret nuryschynge, and digestible: 

His study was but lytyl in the Bible. 

In sanguynt and in perse J he clad was al 

Lined with taffata and with sendal;§ 

And yit he was but easy of dispense, 

He kepte that he won in pestelence; 

For gold in pbysik is a cordial; 

Therefore he lovede gold in special. 

This curious personage is represented as qua- 
lified to speak of surgery as well as physic; 
though the practice of it was a separate branch 
then as well as now, as we know by the exam- 
ple of the celebrated surgeon Ardern, || who 
flourished at that time. 



* Their. + Blood Colour. 

J A fine silken stuff. § A bluish-grey, or sky-colour. 

|| An early writer, whose works are noticed by Dr. 
Friend. He was a surgeon of great experience, a,nd the 



MEDICAL MEN. 95 

The fundamental science on which his know- 
ledge was built, is said to have been astronomy ; 
by which is understood that fanciful part of it 
called astrology. By the aid of this art he 
was enabled to make election of fortunate hours 
for the administration of his remedies, and to 
calculate the nativities of his patients, in order 
to discover which of the heavenly bodies was 
lord of the ascendant at their birth; and like- 
wise, by magic natural, to make sigils or cha- 
racters stamped in metal, with the signature of 
that constellation which governed this part of 
the body where the disease was seated. 

first who is recorded as having become eminent in that 
branch among our countrymen; that his residence was in 
tlie town of Newcastle, from the year 1348 to 1370, when 
he removed to London, whither his reputation had long 
before reached. A treatise of his, on the fistula in ano, 
was thought worthy, notwithstanding the great mixture of 
empiricism and superstition which appears in his practice, 
of being translated and published by John Read, in 1588. 

Dr. Friend remarks, that it appears from Ardern to 
have been the custom of the times for security to be re- 
quired by surgeons from their patients for payment when 
the cure was effected. The same thing was practised in 
France at the beginning of the last century ; for we are 
told, in the eloge of Monsieur Mareschal, in the ' Memoirs 
of the Royal Academy of Surgery,' at Paris, that when he 
was first appointed surgeon to Louis XIV., in 1703, he 
generously threw into the fire, obligatory bonds from hi^ 
patients, to the value of £20,000. 



96 MEDICINE AND 

His reasonings concerning the causes of dis- 
tempers, were founded on the Galenical doc- 
trines of the four different qualities of heat, 
cold, dryness, and moisture, operating on the 
different humours of the body. 

As well as his modern brethren, he had his 
apothecaries under him, who furnished him 
with his drugs and electuaries; that is, his 
simples and compounds, the most noted of 
which last class were in the form of electuaries. 
Among the masters, from whom he derived the 
principles of his art, we find the venerable 
father of physic; some of the elder Greeks; 
several of the Arabian school ; the modern 
Greeks, Damascenus Presbyter, and Constan- 
tine the monk; Raymond Lully (called here 
Lylye;) Bernard de Gordonio, author of the 
celebrated Lilium Medicinee; and his own 
countrymen, Gilbert* and Gaddesden.f 

From the sarcasm thrown out, concerning 
his ignorance of the scriptures, we may judge 



* Physician to Hubert, archbishop of Canterbury, ac- 
cording to Bale, in the reign of king Jehn, about the year 
1210; but Leland makes him more modern. The earliest 
remaining writing, on the practice of physic, still extant, is 
his ' Compendium of Physic' 

t Of both Gaddesden and Gilbert, Dr. Friend has given 
a very interesting and well-written account. The latter 
flourished about the beginning of the fourteenth century ; 



MEDICAL MEN. 1)7 

lliat he did not, like many of that and an 
earlier age, unite the clerical with the medi- 
cal character; and, from the description of 
his dress and of equipment, we may con- 
clude him to have been a person of some figure 
and dignity. Upon the whole, with respect to 
the manner of conducting the business of his 
profession, and the rank he occupied in society, 
he appears to have approached nearer to the 
same character in modern times than might 
have been imagined. 



and was the first Englishman employed as a physician at 
court. 

In Freind's ' Rosa Angelica,' he has omitted to noiice 
the following passage, which may not be unworthy of atten- 
tion. " Our readers," says Aikin, in his ' Biographical 
Memoirs of Medicine in Great Britain,' whence we extract 
this account, " will, probably, be surprised to find that the 
method of producing fresh from salt-water, by simple dis- 
tillation, should be familiarly mentioned by an author of 
this remote period. In a chapter of John of Gaddesden's 
on sweeting salt-water, he gives the following method of 
performing it. 1st. Repeated percolation through sands 
2dly. Boiling salt-water in an open vessel, and receiving 
the steam on a cloth, which, when sufficiently impreg- 
nated, is to be wrung out. (This, in fact, is a kind of dis- 
tillation.) 3dly. Distillation in an alembic with a gentle 
heat. 4thly. Setting a thin cup of wax to swim in a ressel 
of salt-water, when the sweet water will drain through the 
pores of the wax, and be received in the cup.'' 

VOL. II. H 



98 MEDICINE AND 

WILLIAM BUTE, OR BUTTS. 

This gentleman was educated at Gone ville Hall, 
Cambridge, of which he became a fellow. In 
1529, he was admitted a member of the College 
of Physicians, in whose annals he is entered 
with the following highly flattering character; 
u y{ r gravis ; eximia lilerarum cognitione, sin- 
gulari judicio, summa experienlia, et prudtnti 
consilio doctor." He was physician to King 
Henry VIII., and is immortalized by Shakspeare 
in his historical play in that monarch's reign, 
where he is represented as making the king a 
witness to the ignominious treatment bestowed 
on Cranmer by the lords of council. Strype, 
in his life of that prelate, gives an account of 
this transaction, nearly the same with that of 
Shakspeare. As it is a curious morceau of pri- 
vate history, and not foreign to our subject, we 
shall quote it.- — " The next morning, accord- 
" ing to the king's monition, and his own 
" expectation, the council sent for him, by 
" eight o'clock of the morning. And, when 
" he came to the council-chamber door, he was 
" not permitted to enter into the council-cham- 
" ber, but stood without, among serving-men 
" and lacquies, above three-quarters of an 
" hour; many counsellors and others going in 
" and out. The matter seemed strange unto 



MEDICAL MEN. 99 

" his secretary, who then attended upon him ; 
** which made him slip away to Dr. Butts, to 
" whom he related the manner of the thing, 
" who, by and bye, came, and kept my lord 
*• company. And yet, 'ere he was called into 
" the council, Dr. Butts went to the king, and 
" told him that he had seen a strange sight. 
" ■ What is that?' said the king. ' Marry/ 
" said he, * my lord of Canterbury is become a 
" lacquey, or a serving-man ; for, to my know- 
" ledge, he hath stood among them this hour 
" almost, at the council-chamber door.' — ' Have 
** they served my lord so? It is well enough,' 
" said the king; 'I shall talk with them by 
" and bye.' " — Life of Cranmer, p. 125. 

From this incident, it may be inferred, that 
our physician was a friend to the reforma- 
tion ; which, in fact, is confirmed by various 
other circumstances. Dr. Butts was knighted 
by Henry VIII. by the title of Sir William Butts, 
of Norfolk. He died November 17th, 1545, 
and was buried in Fulham church. His por- 
trait is in the picture of the delivery of the 
charter to the surgeon's company. 

DR. HARVEY. 

This eminent physician took his doctor's de- 
gree at Padua, the diploma for which, drawn 
up in extraordinary terms of approbation, is 
H 2 



100 MEDICINE AND 

dated April 25, 1605, when Harvey bad just 
completed his twenty-fourth year; and is to the 
following effect : 

" In quo quidem examine adeo mirifice et excellentis- 
sime se gessit, talemque ac tantam ingenii, memoriae, et 
doctrhice vim ostend it, ut expectatione quam de se apud 
omnes concitaverat, longissime superata, a praedictis 
exc">'s. Doctoribus unanimiter et concorditer, cunc- 
tisque suffragiis, ac eorum nemine penitus atque penitus 
discrepante, aut dissentiente, nee haesitante quidem, ido- 
neus et sufficientissimus in Artibus et Medicina fuerit 
Judicatus."* 

In December, 1652, the college of physicians 
testified their regard for their illustrious asso- 
ciate in a manner singularly honourable. They 
voted the erection of his statue in their hall, 
with the following inscription : 

GULIELMO HARVEIO, 

YIRO MONUMENTIS SHIS INHORTALI 

HOC INSUPER COLLEGIUM MEDICORUM L0NDINENS2 

POSUIT J 

QUI ENIM SANGUINIS MOTUM 

UT ET 

AMMALIBUS ORTUM DEDIT MERUIT ESSE 

STATOR PERPETUUS. 

This high mark of consideration and esteem 
soon met with a grateful return. On the 2d of 

* This Diploma is printed in the College edition, of 
Harvey's Works. 



MEDICAL MEN. 101 

February following, Harvey, inviting the mem- 
bers to a splendid entertainment, presented 
the college with the deed of gift of an elegantly 
furnished convocation-room, and a museum 
fiHed with choice books and chirurgical instru- 
ments, which, at his own expense, he had 
built in their garden. 

Harvey died on the 3d of June, 1658, hav- 
ing completed his 80th year. 

In Dr. Mead's collection, there is a picture 
of Harvey with the following couplet, written 
by the former: 

" Harveii magnum nomen laudesque manebunt 
Sanguis dum in Gyros itque reditque suos." 

VALENTINE GREATRAKES, 
This singular man, famous for curing many 
people by the touch of his hand, was de- 
scended from a good family in the county of 
Waterford, where he was born in the reign of 
Charles the First. His education was as liberal 
as could be procured in those troublesome times, 
at Lismore school, where he continued until the 
term of years qualified him for entering Trinity 
college, Dublin. At this time the rebellion 
broke out, and, owing to the then distracted 
state of the nation, he was obliged, with his 
mother, (who had several other small children), 
to fly for refuge into England, where they were 



102 MEDICINE AND 

relieved by his uncle, Mr. Edward Harris ; after 
■Whose death, young Greatrakes was committed 
to the care of Mr. John Daniel Getseus, a Ger- 
man, and then minister of Stoke Damerel, in the 
county of Devon, who, for several years, in- 
structed him in theology, philosophy, &c. 

About the year 1624, he returned to his na- 
tive country, but, was so exceedingly affected 
by the miserable and reduced state it was in, 
that he retired to the Castle of Caperquin, 
where he spent a year in serious contemplation 
on the vicissitudes of state and fortune. 

In the year 1649, he became lieutenant in the 
regiment of Roger, Lord Broghill, afterwards 
Earl of Orrery, then acting in Munster against 
the Irish papists ; but, upon the regiment being 
disbanded, (1656) he retired to his estate at 
Affane, and was soon after appointed clerk of 
the peace for the county of Cork, and registrar 
for plantations, and justice of peace. 

About the year 1662, Valentine began to con- 
ceive himself possessed of an extraordinary virtue, 
in being able to remove the king's evil, or other 
diseases, by touching or stroking the parts 
affected with the hand. This imagination he 
concealed for some time ; but, at last, revealed 
it to his wife, who ridiculed the idea* Resolved, 
however, to make a trial, he began with one 
William Mayer, who was brought to the house 



MEDICAL MEN. 103 

of his father for the purpose of receiving some 
assistance from Mrs. Greatrakes, as this lady 
was always ready to relieve the sick and indi- 
gent, as far as lay in her power. This boy was 
sorely afflicted with the king's-eiil, but was, to 
all appearance, cured by Mr. Greatrakes laying 
his hands upon the parts affected. Several other 
persons appeared to be cured, in the same man- 
ner, of different disorders. He acquired con- 
siderable fame in his neighbourhood ; but, being 
cited in the Bishop's Court, at Lismore, and 
not producing a licence for practising, he was 
prohibited from laying his hands on any person 
for the future; but he still continued to do so 
till January, 1605-6, when he came to England, 
at the request of the Earl of Orrery, in order to 
cure the lady of the Lord Viscount Conway, of 
Ragley, in Warwickshire, of a continual violent 
head-ache. He staid at Ragley about a month, 
but failed in his endeavours to relieve this lady ; 
notwithstanding, he is said to have performed 
several miraculous cures here, in the presence 
of several eminent and skilful persons. 

A declaration of his cures in Warwickshire, 
was published by Mr. Stubbe, (who was a wit- 
ness to them) at Oxford, in quarto, in which the 
author maintained " that Mr. Greatrakes was 
possessed of a peculiar temperament, as his body 
was composed of some particular ferments, the 



104 MEDICINE AND 

effluvia whereof being introduced, sometimes by 
a light, sometimes by a violent friction, restore 
the temperament of the debilitated parts, re- 
generate the blood, and dissipate all hetero- 
geneous ferments out of the bodies of the dis- 
eased, by the eyes, nose, mouth, hands, and 
feet." This publication was " A Letter," ad- 
dressed to the Honourable Robert Boyle, Esq. 
who, in a private letter to the author, expressed 
his displeasure at being thus publicly addressed, 
on such a subject, particularly as Mr. Stubbe 
endeavoured to shew that Mr. Greatrake's gift 
was miraculous. Mr. Glanville, also, imputed 
his cures to a sensitive quality inherent in his 
constitution ; and others (perhaps with greater 
probability) to the force of imagination in his 
patients ; Mr. Boyle, however, having witnessed 
Mr. Greatrake's performances, in April, 1666, 
acknowledges his remarkable cures. This ex- 
traordinary man afforded much matter for the 
press, and various pamphlets were published 
pro and con, particularly one in quarto, and 
supposed to have been written by Mr. David 
Lloyd, reader of the Charter-house, under the 
title of " Wonders no Miracles; or, Mr. Valen- 
tine Greatrake's gift of healing examined upon 
occasion of a sad effect of his touching a young 
Lady, March 7th, 1665, at one Mr. Cresseli's 
house, in Charter-house Yard, in a Letter ta 



MEDICAL MEN. 105 

a Reverend Divine, living near that place." 
This attack obliged Mr. Greatrakes to vindicate 
himself; and, accordingly, he published a list 
of his " strange cures." It is a fact, that this 
man's reputation rose to a prodigious height; 
but, latterly, declined almost as fast, for the 
expectations of the multitude, that resorted to 
him, were not always answered. 

THE APOTHECARY AT FAULT. 

It is not uncommon to see different individuals, 
some even of a distinguished rank, apply to 
apothecaries for the cure of their complaints; 
and it is, perhaps, not less common, to meet 
with apothecaries who make a merit, as well as 
a gain of this confidence, which is as dangerous 
as it is liable to abuse. If they are not paid for 
their visit, they lose nothing by that; the drugs 
which they are sure to furnish indemnifies them 
a hundred-fold for their pains and consultations. 
The following anecdote proves, however, that all 
do not think and act alike: — 

One of the most celebrated apothecaries of 
Paris, member of several academies, M. B**** 
was occupied in his laboratory with some essen- 
tial operations : he was called into his shop to 
a person who wished to speak to him. This per- 
son, after having stated, at considerable length,, 
the commencement, the progress, and the state of 



106 MEDICINE AND 

his disorder, finished by asking him, what he 
must do? M. B****, who, while the individual 
was speaking, was more troubled with what was 
passing in his laboratory than by the complaints 
of the patient, hastily replied, "You must take 
a physician or a surgeon!" Astonished by this 
quick reply, which he did not expect, the per- 
son stedfastly regarded M. B****, and asked 
with as much vivacity, — " In infusion or decoc- 
tion, Sir?" 

WILLIAM TURNER. 

This gentleman was born at Morpeth, in 
Northumberland, and educated at Cambridge, 
where he pursued the studies of philosophy 
and physic. A three-fold union of the several 
characters of physician, naturalist, and divine, 
was not unfrequent at this aera, and there were 
few in whom it existed more eminently than 
in the present subject. 

Turner was a fellow-collegian and friend of 
the celebrated Bishop Ridley, with whom he 
imbibed the religious principles of the reform- 
ers, which then began to be received in Eng- 
land. Amid the zeal for the propagation of 
this opinion, he for some time quitted his me- 
dical pursuits, and travelled through the 
greatest part of the kingdom as an itinerant 
and unlicensed preacher. For this, at the in- 



MEDICAL MEN. 107 

stigation of Bishop Gardiner and others, he was 
imprisoned, and, on his escape, or, as Wood 
represents it, his release, he went into volun- 
tary exile. At Ferrara, he took the degree of 
doctor of physic ; and, during the remainder 
of Henry the Eighth's reign, he resided chiefly 
at Cologne, and other places of Germany. He 
returned to England in the next reign, which 
was more favourable to his religious opinions, 
and was very graciously received by the young 
king, who presented him with a prebend of 
York, a canonry of Windsor, and the deanery 
of Wells. He likewise obtained a license to 
preach, as many other laymen did at that time, 
and was incorporated doctor of physic at Ox- 
ford. 

Edward, Duke of Somerset, the protector, 
made him his physician, which brought him 
into considerable practice among people of rank. 
— On the accession of Queen Mary, he was 
again obliged to quit the country, and went into 
Germany with several other English divines; 
from thence he proceeded to Rome, and after- 
wards, for a time, settled in Basle. At the 
death of the Queen he returned to his native 
country, and was reinstated in his preferments. 
He died July 7, 1568, and was buried in St. 
Olave's church-yard, London. His widow after- 
wards married Dr. Richard Cox, bishop of Ely. 



108 MEDICINE AND 

He left several children, one of whom was a 
doctor of physic, whose son was professor of 
geometry in Gresham college. 

Among a variety of works which Turner left, 
on the three branches of knowledge, for which 
he was eminent, Strype, in his Life of Cranmer, 
p. 357, gives the following account of one of 
them, which we shall here quote as a specimen. 
It is entitled, " A new Book of spiritual Phy- 
sick for divers Diseases of the Nobility and 
Gentlemen of England;" printed 1555; and 
dedicated to several of the principal nobility. 
It consisted of three parts. In the first, he 
shewed who were noble and gentlemen, and 
how many works and properties belong unto 
such, and wherein their office chiefly standeth. 
In the second, he shewed great diseases were in 
the nobility and gentry, which letted them from 
doing their office. In the third part, he spe- 
cified what the diseases were; as namely, the 
Romish-pox and the leprosy; shewing after- 
wards the remedies against these diseases. 
For, being a very facetious man, he delivered 
his reproof and counsels under witty and plea- 
sant discourse. 

COMPETITION EXTRAORDINARY. 

The old apothecaries of Vienna being irri- 
tated against the young, because they offered 



MEDICAL MEN. 109 

their drugs for sale at half the common price, 
represented to the Emperor, in an audience 
which he granted them, that the young Pharma- 
copolists would either ruin themselves or de- 
ceive the public. " In ihe first case, it is their 
business," replied Joseph II. ; " in the second, 
it is your's." 

SENTENCE AGAINST AN APOTHECARY. 

On the 12th of April, 1776, an Act of the 
Parliament of Provence sentenced an Apothecary 
to pay a fine of a thousand livres, and not to 
open his shop for three months, for having sold 
drugs to a woman, who died after having poi- 
soned herself with them. It is to be desired, to 
prevent the frequent abuses which arise from 
the retailing noxious drugs, that the venders 
of them should be always punished with the 
greatest severity. 

M. FOCHON. 

Monsieur, brother of Louis XIV. had an 
extreme aversion to being let blood. In 1701, he 
had a bleeding of the nose, which he concealed 
from the physicians, fearing that they would 
order him to be bled. Being at table with the 
King one day at Marly, he was seized with a 
bleeding at the nose, so considerable that the 
whole company was alarmed. M. Fochon, first 
physician, to whom long experience had given 



110 MEDICINE AND 

the right of speaking to the princes with a 
salutary boldness, said, after having examined 
him, " You are threatened with apoplexy, and 
you cannot be too soon blooded." The King, 
at different times, joined himself with the phy- 
sician, in order to overcome the resistance his 
brother opposed to being bled ; but never being 
able to succeed, he at length said, " You will 
find what your obstinacy will cost you. We shall 
be awoke some of these nights to be told — 
that you are dead." — The prediction was soon 
accomplished ; for, at the end of a short time, 
after having supped very gaily at St. Cloud, 
Monsieur was about to retire, when he dropped 
down dead, as he was asking M. De Ventadour, 
who was near him, for a liqueur which the Duke 
of Savoy had sent him. 

EXTENSIVE VENESECTION. 

M. Theveneau, Seigneur de Palmery, M.D. 
living at St. Sauge, a town of the Nivernois, at- 
tended the wife of a hussar, named Gignault, 
aged 24 years, whom he caused to be bled from 
the 6th of September, 1726, to the 3d of June, 
1727; that is to say, in nine months three thou- 
sand nine hundred and four times ; to the 15th 
of July, of the same year, the bleedings amounted 
to four thousand five hundred and fifty-five; 
this female could only^ be relieved in her dis- 



MEDICAL MEN. Ill 

order by bleeding. The Mercure de France, 
April, 1728, and December, 1729, contains the 
detail of her disease. All the bleedings, from 
the 6th of September, 1726, to the 1st of Decern- 
ber, 1729, at length, amounted to twenty-six 
thousand two hundred and thirty. 

TOUCHING FOR THE KING'S EVIL. 

The following proclamation, issued in the 
reign of Charles I. April 22, 1634, will, perhaps, 
afford some gratification to the curious : — 

By the King. — A Proclamation, appointing the time when 
his Majestie's subjects may approach to the Court for 
eure of the disease called the King's Euill; 

Whereas, by the grace and blessing of Almighty God, 
the Kings and Queens of this Realme, by many ages past, 
hare had the happinesse, by their sacred touch, to cure 
those who are afflicted with the disease called the King's 
Euill; and his now most excellent Majesty, in no less 
measure than any of his Royall Progenitors, hath had 
blessed successe therein; and, in his most gracious and 
pious disposition, is as ready and willing as any King or 
Queene of this Realme ever was in any thing to relieve the 
distresses and necessities of his good subjects ; yet in his 
princely wisdome, foreseeing that in this (as in all things,) 
order is to be observed, and fit times are necessary to be 
appointed for performing this great worke of charity ; and 
taking into his Royall consideration the great inconveniences 
which may happen, both in respect of the temper of the 
season, and in respect of contagion, which may happen in 
this neere accesse to his Majestie's sacred Person, when 
the season of the year is growne warm ; Doth hereby pub. 



112 MEDICINE AND 

lish and declare his Royal pleasure to be, and also will and 
command that from the time of publishing this proclama- 
tion, no person or persons whatsoever do attempt or pre- 
sume to repair to his Majesty's Royal Court, to be healed 
of that disease, before the feast of All Souls now next 
coming; And to the end that all his loving subjects may 
the better take notice of this his Majestie's pleasure and 
command, his pleasure is, that this proclamation be pub- 
lished and affixed in some fit and open place in every 
market-town of this realme. 

After the restoration, great multitudes flocked 
to receive the royal touch, inasmuch that six 
or seven persons were crushed to death, press- 
ing at the chirurgeon's door for, tickets. 

Evelyn'* Journal. 

In 1682 the King touched 8577 ; and Browne 
remarks, that notwithstanding the number had 
been so great as to amount to a considerable por- 
tion of the whole nation, yet, upon any new de- 
claration of healing, they were again as fast as 
if none had applied before, " A thing as mon- 
strous as strange !" Notwithstanding this, it 
began to decline. Oliver Cromwell tried in 
vain to exercise the Royal prerogative ; and, in 
1684, Thomas Rouse well was tried for high- 
treason, because he spoke with contempt of 
King Charles's pretensions to the cure of scro- 
phula. 

Charles Bernard who had made this touching 
the subject of raillery all his life-time, till he 



MEDICAL MEN. 113 

became sergeant-surgeon, when it turned out so 
good a perquisite, that he solved all diffioulties, 
by saying, with a sneer, " Really one could not 
have thought it if one had not seen it." 

Stowe, in his " Annals," accounts for the ori- 
gin of touching for the king's evil, in the fol- 
lowing manner : " A young woman was afflicted 
with this disorder in a very alarming manner, 
and to a most disgusting degree, feeling the 
uneasiness and pain consequent upon it in her 
sleep, dreamt that she should be cured by the 
simple operation of having the part washed with 
the king's hand. Application was consequently 
made to Edwajd, by her friend, who very hu- 
manely consented to perform the unpleasant 
request. A basin of water was brought, with 
which he carefully softened the tumors, till they 
broke, and the contents discharged ; the sign of 
the cross wound up the charm ; and the female 
retired, with the assurance of his protection 
during the remainder of the cure, which was 
effected within a week." 

THE GOLDEN TOUCH. 

The Hon. Daines Barington, in his " Obser- 
vations on our Antient Statutes," page 107, re- 
lates the circumstance of an old man, a witness 
in a cause, who averred, that when Queen Anne 
was at Oxford, she touched him, whilst a child, 

VOL. II. I 



114 MEDICINE AND 

for the evil." Mr. Barrington, when he had 
finished his evidence, asked him, " Wheiher he 
was really cured ? " Upon which he answered, 
with a significant smile, " that he believed him- 
self never to have had a complaint that de- 
served to be considered as the evil, but that 
his parents were poor, and had no objection to 
the bit of gold." 

This accounts for the great resort of patients, 
and the supposed miraculous cures on this occa- 
sion. This new-exploded royal gift is thus de- 
scribed by Shakspeare: 

" , . Strangely-visited people, 

All swollen and ulcerous, pitiful to the eye, 
The mere despair of surgery, he cures; 
Hanging a golden stamp about their necl{, 
Put on with holy prayers." — Macbeth. 

SECRETS OF TRADE. 

Dr. Moore (author of Zeluco) used to say 
that, " At least two-thirds of a physician's 
fees were for imaginary complaints." Among 
several instances of this nature, he mentions 
one of a clothier, who, after long drinking the 
Bath waters, took it into his head to try the 
Bristol hot wells. Previous, however, to his set- 
ting off, he requested his physician to favour 
him with a letter, stating his case to another 
brother of Galen. This done, the patient got 



MEDICAL MEN* 115 

into a chaise and started. After proceeding 
about half-way, he felt an itch to pry into the 
contents of the letter, when the following 
words presented themselves : — " Dear sir, the 
bearer is a fat Wiltshire clothier; make the 
most of him." It is unnecessary to add, that 
his cure was at that moment effected, as he 
ordered the chaise to return, and immediately 
proceeded home. 

EARLY RISING. 
The celebrated physician, Bezerchemere, 
used every morning to awaken Nosherivaun, 
and descant much on the benefits of early- 
rising. As he was once going to court, agree- 
ably to custom, before day-light, a thief robbed 
him of his turban. The emperor enquired the 
reason of his being bare-headed ] and being 
informed, sneeringly said, ** Didst thou not tell 
me, that the benefits of early rising were nu- 
merous; see what has happened to thyself, 
from being up so soon !" — " The thief (replied 
the physician) was up before me, and therefore 
enjoyed the advantage of my doctrine." 

physician's fees. 

In all ages, physicians have generally con- 
trived to get large fees. Thus Eristratus, the 
physician, got a handsome fee, no less than 
sixty thousand crowns, from Seleucus, for 
12 



116 MEDICINE AND 

having discovered bis son's (Antiochus) disor- 
der, and prescribing a remedy, though to the 
father a very unpleasant one. Love was the 
young man's complaint, and love of Stratonice, 
bis father's favourite concubine, who being 
handed over, like landed property, from father 
to son, adjusted matters, and cured the young 
gentleman. 

We find, also, that Petrus Aponensis, or, as 
some call him, Pierre D'Avane, a physician of 
Padua, in the thirteenth Century, would hot 
go out of town on a visit to the sick under one 
hundred and fifty francs a-day. When sent 
for to Pope Honorius IV., he demanded four 
hundred ducats a-day. 

ON JAMES SMITH, 

Oculist and Artificial Eye-maker. 

Britain's fam'd oculist displays his art, 

In couching eyes, and bettering of that partj 

His skill is great, yet that's a nobler skill, 

Which can the room of bad with new ones fill ; 

This does my friend, this he alone can do. 

Let foreign realms their genius boast no more, 

For new inventions unconceived before, 

Since Smith, and all that know him, know 'tis true, 

Is ENGUSH-born, and loves^his country too. 

Thus, as our Monarch others does excel, 

In wisdom, power, and in ruling well; 

So do his loyal subjects theirs outvie, 

As well in arts as in sweet liberty. 



MEDICAL MEN. 117 

BR. GARTH. 

When the author of " The Dispensary," 
was on his death-bed, a nobleman, who had 
long confided in his skill, with characteristic 
selfishness sent to ask after his health ; and, 
at the same time, to inquire, should he not 
recover, what physician he would recommend 
him to employ in his stead? " Send for the 
nearest," said the expiring sage. 

VACCINATION. 

The Empress Dowager Mary of Russia, and 
several foreign potentates, sent gratulatory 
addresses to Dr. Jenner on his discovery of 
vaccination, which has rapidly gained ground 
in every quarter of the globe. A few instances 
of this kind are worthy of being recorded. 

When Dr. Wickham was made prisoner in 
France, Dr. Jenner was applied to as the fittest 
person for addressing to Bonaparte a peti- 
tion soliciting that physician's liberation. This 
was at the time of Napoleon's greatest ani- 
mosity to this country. It happened thus: the 
emperor was in his carriage, and the horses 
were being changed. The petition was then 
presented to him. He exclaimed, " Away ! 
away !" The Empress Josephine, who accom- 
panied him, said, " But, emperor, do you see 
whom this comes from? Jenner!" He changed 



118 MEDICINE AND 

his tone of voice that instant, and said, " What 
that man asks is not to be refused ;" and the 
petition was immediately granted. The em- 
peror also liberated many others, even whole 
families, from time to time, at the request of 
Dr. Jenner. Indeed, he never refused any 
request made by Dr. Jenner, who, of course, 
observed proper delicacy in not applying too 
often. 

THE PORTUGUESE MEDICAL TEST. 

In Portugal, they have an odd mode of esti- 
mating medical merit. A servant belonging to 
the royal family was stabbed in the abdomen, 
so that his entrails came out. Mr. T., an 
English surgeon, cured the wound, and the 
reward he received was to have his picture 
hung up in the Lapa Church, standing by the 
patient's bed, with the Virgin Mary above, 
who had enabled him to perform the cure. 

SINGULAR CASE OF POISONING. 
The following ridiculous and not less extra- 
ordinary instance of poisoning was related to 
M. Dutens by an English nobleman, who was 
an eye-witness of the scene. — "Lord Oxford 
kept a mistress, who was extremely capricious. 
One night, when they were sleeping together, 
after having quarrelled, he was awakened by 



MEDICAL MEN. 1 19 

the cries of his mistress; who beat her face, 
tore her hair, and exhibited every mark of the 
greatest despair. Me questioned her, and 
pressed her to tell him the cause of her dis- 
tress. At last he learnt from her, that, in order 
to avenge herself for the quarrel which they 
had had together the day before, she had poi- 
soned him at supper, and had also poisoned 
berself. Alarmed at this declaration, he called 
up his servants, and sent for several physicians. 
They came ; antidotes were speedily and pro- 
perly administered ; and after they had both 
vomited copiously for some hours, every body 
was surprised at the violeut bursts of laughter 
of the woman ; who, falling into an elbow- 
chair, was more than a quarter of an hour 
before she was able to explain the cause of 
such ill-timed gaiety. She at last declared, 
that neither Lord Oxford nor herself had been 
poisoned ; but that she had only wished to be 
revenged upon him, by the alarm which she 
had given him, and in which she had so well 
succeeded. Lord Oxford thought the jest 
rather too serious ; and as it was possible that 
she had thought of giving that turn to the tran- 
saction, only after the effect of the emetics, he 
resolved never to sup with her again!" 



120 MEDICINE AND 

THE GOURMAND'S COMPLAINT. 

A glutton complained to a physician, that 
lie was much afflicted with colicky spasms: 
" What hast thou eaten to-day," said Galen, 
" and how dost thou generally live 1" The 
glutton informed him that he had been at a 
feast, and rather exceeded his usual fare, 
which was so and so daily. " Well," said the 
Doctor, " if happily thou dost not die to-night, 
1 would advise thee to hang thyself to-morrow, 
for death alone can rid thee of thy complaints." 

HINT TO WIG-WEARERS. 

Those who wear wigs, and have malicious 
barbers, should read the following. — " In the 
year 1761, Monsieur Stambke, Counsellor of 
State to the hereditary Prince of Russia and 
Duke of Holstein, died in an advanced age. 
The late Duke of Holstein owed his life to this 
gentleman ; for, being at Petersburgb, and 
having ordered a new state-wig to be made, 
when the peruke-maker brought it home, he 
seemed to insist with more than ordinary 
earnestness that the duke should be shaved, 
that the wig might fit the better. M. Stambke 
being accidentally there, and suspecting, from 
the solicitude of the peruke-maker, that some foul 



MEDICAL MEN. 121 

play was intended, advised the duke to compel 
the peruke-maker to have Iiis own head shaved ; 
which being done, and the wig put upon it, 
he expired within twelve minutes ! 

IRRESISTIBLE FEES. 

Doctor Radcliffe attending one of his inti- 
mates in a dangerous sickness, with an univer- 
sal strain of generosity for him, declared he 
would not touch a fee. One insisted, the other 
positively refused. But when the cure was 
performed, and the doctor taking his leave, 
quoth the patient, " Sir, in this purse I have 
put every day's fee; nor must your goodness 
get the better of my gratitude." — The doctor 
eyed the purse, counted the number of days in 
a minute, and then holding out his hand, re- 
plied, " Well, I can hold out no longer; singly, 
I could have refused them for a twelvemonth ; 
but, altogether, they are irresistible.*' 

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. 

Until the year 1809, surgeons were united 
by virtue of the old charter granted by Henry 
VIII. by which they stood incorporated with 
the Barbers : but at the time alluded to, they 
obtained a new one, which constituted them 
a separate body ; since which, various legis- 
lative and other enactments and regulations 



122 MEDICINE AND 

inter se, have been adopted and put in force 
to promote their utility and indivisible respect- 
ability. Notwithstanding all these wise mea- 
sures, we have still to boast of hordes of practi- 
tioners, whose propensity for the old school 
seems undiminished, as well as determined 
never to be annihilated, by all the projectiles 
of the new one. 

The Royal College of Surgeons is a dignified 
edifice of the Ionic order, with an elegant 
portico, on the frieze of which are inscribed 
the words 

* Collegium Regale Chirurgorum." 
On the summit are placed arms of the college, 
supported by Machaon and Podalirius, sons of 
JEsculapius. 

The interior of the Royal College is grand, 
spacious, and commodious ; the museum is an 
extensive building, of an oblong form, with 
galleries. Amongst its valuable materials is 
the admirable and extensive collection of the 
great John Hunter, purchased by order of 
government. " In this collection," to use the 
words of Sir Everard Home, " we find an 
attempt to expose to view the gradations of 
nature, from the most simple state in which life 
is found to exist, up to the most perfect and 
most complex of the animal creation — man 
himself." It contains preparations of the hu- 



MEDICAL MEN. 123 

man body in a healthy, a natural, and a morbid 
state ; with a variety of the preternatural 
sport iveness of Mother Nature, in her varied 
shape and forms. It contains also a rare and 
extensive collection of objects of Natural His- 
tory, which, through the medium of compara- 
tive anatomy, greatly contributes to physiolo- 
gical and pathological illustration. There is 
also a considerable arrangement of mineral and 
vegetable productions; amounting altogether 
to upwards of 20,000 specimens and prepara- 
tions. 

The musuem likewise contains many valuable 
contributions made by Sir Joseph Banks: 500 
specimens of natural and diseased structure, 
presented by Sir William Blizard ; with consi- 
derable augmentations to the library by Sir 
Everard Home and others. 

Among the many curiosities that are to be 
met with here, may be enumerated the wife of 
the celebrated Van Butchel, laid out in a long 
square mahogany box ; the spaces of which 
are filled with a certain preservative composi- 
tion; but over the face is a square of glass 
which can be removed at pleasure. The fea- 
tures are entirely preserved; and it is justly 
considered a curious specimen of what art can 
accomplish. 

Twenty-four lectures are, at least, delivered 



124 'medicine and 

annually at this college, called " The Museum 
Lectures," in pursuance of the agreement 
made with government when the Hunterian 
collection was presented to it. There are also 
anatomical lectures, called " Arris' and Gale's 
Lectures," according to the intention of Alder- 
man Arris and Mr. Gale, who bequeathed 
funds for that purpose: independent of these 
the Hunterian Oration, recently instituted, is 
delivered every 14th of February.* 

The library is only accessible to the members 
of Hie college; and it is difficult to gain per- 
mission to view the Museum without being 
introduced by one of this body. 

The other buildings, connected as appen- 
dages to this learned institution, possess equal 
merit, by uniting a successful combination of 
utility with architectural excellence. 

BMPIBICAL IMPUDENCE. 

One of the best quacks ever read of was a 
Monsieur Villars, of Paris, who lived about 
1728. When a funeral passed, he would shrug 
up his shoulders in pity, saying, " If the de- 
ceased had taken his medicine, he would not 
be where he is." At length his nostrum got 
into fame, and as he sold it at a crown the 

* The birth-day of the celebrated John Hunter. 



MEDICAL MEN. 125 

bottle, he got very wealthy. His prescription 
with his medicine (which was nothing more 
than the water of the Seine and a little nitre), 
or rather his observation, was generally this : 
" It is your own fault if you be not perfectly 
cured; you have been intemperate and incon- 
tinent: renounce these vices, and with the aid 
of my medicine, you will live to a good old 
age." The Abbe Pons extolled this quack, 
and gave him the preference to Mareschal tie 
Villars : " the latter, (said he) kills men ; the 
former prolongs their existence." 

THE LAST FEE. 

The late Dr. B , of Bristol, who died 

very rich, coming into the bed-room of a 
patient a very few minutes after he bad ex- 
pired, perceived something glittering through 
the clenched fingers of one hand : he gently 
opened them, took out the guinea, and put it 
into his pocket, observing, " This was certainly 
intended for me !" 

GIG PAfflENTS. 

A celebrated surgeon was called upon by a 
gentleman to attend a friend in the country. 
The gentleman offered to carry him to the 
place. — "By what conveyance'?" — "I will 
take you down in my gig." — '> I am much 



126 MEDICINE AND 

obliged to you," said the wary disciple of 
Esculapius, " but I decline your offer, as I 
have at this time half a dozen gig patients 
under ray care." 

FASTING. 

M. Denis Dodart, (physician to Louis XIV.,) 
relates the following account of his living in Lent: 
— " On the first day of Lent, 1677, (age 43) he 
weighed 1161b. loz. During the whole of Lent 
he continued to live as was the practice of the 
church in the 12th century ; i. e. he neither ate 
nor drank till six or seven o'clock, p. m. His 
diet, the chief part of the time, was vegetable; 
towards the end, bread and water only. On 
Easter Eve he weighed 1071b. 12oz. having 
lost, in forty-six days, 8lb. 5oz. equal to one- 
fourteenth of his first weight. On resuming 
his ordinary course of life, in four days he 
recovered 41b.; whence the writer assumes eight 
or nine days as time sufficient to repair the 
loss of forty-six of abstinence. — He had made 
some experiments also on bleeding, the result 
of which was, that in a robust and healthy 
person, 16 oz. would be recovered in less than 
five days." 

M. Dodart must have been of a diminutive 
size, his weight not being more than two-thirds 
of a tolerably stout man. The comparative 



MEDICAL MEN. 137 

loss of weight is considerable, but by no means 
equal to the amount of what some of our 
Newmarket jockeys, of about the same bulk, 
produce upon themselves by the effect of 
strong exercise and a load of additional cloath- 
ing, rather than by great abstinence. 

ECCENTRIC ARMY-SURGEON. 

Maurice Quill was a native of Tralee, the 
capital of •' the kingdom of Kerry," as it is 
called in Ireland. He was appointed assist- 
ant-surgeon to the 31st regiment of foot, about 
the year 1809, and followed that regiment to 
the Peninsula; subsequent to his landing, he 
contrived to remain for many months at Bay- 
lem, in Portugal; but after much manoeuvring, 
to avoid "joining" at head-quarters, Maurice 
was " ordered up" peremptorily by the Dune 
of Wellington. His reputation for wit, origi- 
nality, and consequently for "idliug," all who 
came within the sphere of his influence was 
such, that the morning after he had "joined," 
his colonel, (the gallant Duckworth) waited 
upon Lord Hill (of whose division of the army 
the 31st formed a part), and with unaffected 
sorrow and gravity reported the arrival of Mau- 
rice, and the consequent termination of disci- 
pline in the regiment. The general uttered the 
most dreadful denunciations against "Mr. Maw- 



128 MEDICINE AND 

rice," as he called him, should the fears of the 
colonel be realised — but he became ultimately 
extremely partial to the humourous surgeon. 

Quill was one of the finest specimens of 
Irish character that has appeared in our day. 
He possessed, in an extraordinary degree, all 
the wit, humour, and love of badinage that 
distinguish his countrymen. To the originality 
of his conceptions, the oddity of his remarks, 
and the strangeness of his phraseology, the 
richness of his brogue gave peculiar poignancy. 
He loved ease, good living, and society ; of the 
latter he was always certain, if, indeed, he 
happened not to be in a desert ; for so attrac- 
tive was he, that his quarters were the rendez- 
vouz of all the officers who could, by possibi- 
lity, repair to them, to " beguile the tedium 
of the winter's night;" unless such as were, 
unfortunately, from their rank, denied that 
pleasure, in observance of military etiquette. 
The rush-light in his tent, or lodging, was a 
beacon to the exhausted and dispirited soldier. 
It has been said that he loved badinage, and wa» 
witty; but his wit was never barbed by the 
slightest touch of ill-nature or offensive person- 
ality. He was brave, but affected cowardice ; 
and gave such whimsical expression to hi* as- 
sumed fears, as pnovoked laughter in the hot- 



MEDICAL MEN. 129 

(est engagement. Of this, his conduct at the 
dreadful and bloody battle of Albuera will be 
a sufficient example. 

Quill had unnecessarily followed the regi- 
ment " into fire," as it is termed ; creeping on 
his hands and knees, with boyish tricks, he 
traversed the rear of the line, pulling the 
officers by their coats, and tendering his 
brandy bottle, saying, "Here, take a slug* 
before you get a bullet. Have a deoch and 
hurras (a drink at the door) before you depart." 
A mass of the enemy's cavalry, including a 
regiment of Polish lancers, prepared to charge 
the 31st., Colonel Duckworth ordered the regi- 
ment to form in square, in the centre of which 
he discovered Maurice, shaking from head to 
foot with well-dissembled terror. " This is no 
place for you, Mr. Maurice," said the lamented 
Duckworth, a few moments before his fall. — 

" By J , I was just thinking so, colonel," 

replied the droll; " I wish to the Holy Father 
that the greatest rascal in Ireland was kicking 
me this moment up Dame-street, and that even 
though every friend I have in the world was 
looking at him ! Finding it impossible to 
break the square, the enemy's cavalry retired 
with great loss, when, ordering the regiment 



* Slug, a dram. 
VOL. II. K 



130 MED1CINH AND 

to deploy, " Fall in," said the colonel ; " Fall 
out," said Maurice, and scampered off; but 
hearing that a captain of the regiment was 
severely wounded, he returned into the fire, and 
dressed him. He had just finished this opera- 
tion, when a twelve-ponnd shot struck the 
ground near Maurice and his patient, and 

covered them with earth. " By J , there 

is more where that came from," said Quill, 
and again took to his heels. 

Of the nature of his replies to the many 
questions with which he was assailed hy his 
colonel, who was induced to ask them, by the 
suggestions of those better acquainted with hit 
manner — and to give a striking specimen of 
Quill's character, I shall add one more in- 
stance : — " I am desirous to know, Mr. Mau- 
rice," said the colonel, " to what good fortune 
can we ascribe your appointment to the thirty- 
first?" — " Why colonel," (with affected embar- 
rassment) " I left the because some of 

the spoons belonging to the mess were found 
in my kit, and you know that would not do in 
one of the crack regiments, colonel. I joined 
the thirty-first because I had a brother in the 
thirty-second, and I wanted to be near him." 

Of his professional abilities, I know nothings 
that they were not held in high estimation would 
appear from the fact of his not having been 



MEDICAL MEN. 131 

promoted during the Peninsular war. That 
he despaired of advancement after the war 
had terminated, was obvious, from his reply 
to a friend who asked him what rank he held — 
" Why, I have been thirteen years an assist- 
ant-surgeon, and, with the blessing of God — 
that is, if I live and behave myself, I shall be 
so for thirteen years more." I am pleased to 
observe, that this prophecy was not verified, 
and that he had been promoted to the rank of 
full surgeon before his death. Mr. Quill died 
young — he must have been under forty years of 
age. Of poor Maurice, it might be truly said, 
that he possessed — 

Spirits o'erflowing — wit that did ne'er offend— 
He gained no enemy, and he lost no friend. 

The tear of many a veteran will fall when 
he shall learn that Maurice Quill is no more! — 
Mr. Quill died in the New Barracks, Cork, on 
the 15th of August, 1823. 

GUY PATIN AND M. MENAGE. 

Guy Patin, a celebrated French physician, 
happened to dine where M. Menage was of the 
party; when the former, who was remarkable 
for the gaiety of his manners, took an oppor- 
tunity, as he ogled a bumper of Burgundy in 
his hand, of addressing himself to M. M. with 
— " Domine Menage ! oportet vivere sic."—* 
K 2 



132 MFD1CINF, AXD 

" I don't think you'll find that among ihe 
aphorisms of Hippocrates, doctor !" said M.M. 
— " However, you are right enough in holding 
forth this doctrine; for, if you can but prevail 
upon all the world to live up to it, there can't 
be a doubt that you and your brethren will have 
a deal more business than you now have." — 
" Don't yon be too sure of that," replied the 
former; " we don't expose our exotic doc- 
trines to the world ; nor are you aware of the 
important recipe contained in my monosyllable 
sic. Separate its letters a little, and let them 
stand as the indicative initials of s-obrii — 
l-ucunde — c-aste, and you will find in them 
some sound medical as well as moral truths: 
Sobriety, Cheerfulness, and Chastity, sir, are 
three of the main pillars of that temple, of 
which I have the honour to be of the priest- 
hood." 

1>R. GLYNN'S PRACTICE. 

The late Dr. Glynn, of Cambridge, was 
a great favourite of George III., who de- 
lighted in the original humour and strong 
sense of his conversation; and used sometimes 
to walk for hours with him on the terrace at 
Windsor. 

t. The doctor was an elegant scholar, but a 
man of many peculiarities. Among others, he 



MEDICAL MEN. 133 

never employed in practice either opium or 
mercury, as he was of opinion, that even syphilis 
might be cured without the aid of this last 
remedy. Being taken ill, when at some dis- 
tance from home, he sent for a neighbouring 
physician ; to whom he said, " I am going to 
be very ill, and commit myself to your care; 
but on no account give me any of that vile 
drug, opium, or any preparation of it." When 
he recovered, he said, " He hoped his friend 
had complied with his request ; but begged he 
would inform him, whether he had given him 
any opium or not." — " If I had not," said the 
other, " you would not have been here to ask 
the question." 

CHOICE OF A PHYSICIAN. 

It is morally impossible for any great num- 
ber of physicians, or for any large proportion 
of those who may choose to try their fortunes 
in a great town, ever to rise to eminence, or 
to acquire extensive and lucrative practice. 
In proportion, at least, to the great eminence 
and wealth that a few of our profession have 
acquired in any city, or, more probably, in a 
much greater proportion, will the number of 
adventurers in the medical lottery of that 
place be increased ; each trusting to his own 
merit and his good fortune. But the people 



134 MEDICINE AMD 

among whom, and by whom, they must live, 
are not in the least disposed to trust any of 
them; and, unless in some very peculiar cir- 
cumstances, will not trust any of them with- 
out the recommendation of at least a long 
acquaintance, or what they may think satisfac- 
tory experience of their talents and professional 
knowledge. Each for his own sake, or for 
that of any of his family, when sick, will be 
eager to obtain the assistance of some physi- 
cian whose professional character is already 
established. This is the true origin and ra- 
tional foundation of the common remark, that 
" a physician cannot earn bread, till he has not 
teeth to eat it." This point was well explained 
some hundred years ago, when men wore long 
beards, and the Pope was infallible. His holi- 
ness had the misfortune to lose his physician, 
in whom he had great confidence. Many phy- 
sicians, of course, were eager to offer their 
services to the pope, who could not for some 
time find one that suited him, or who had even 
the sense to answer properly a very simple 
question, which the Pope put to them succes- 
sively : "How many have you killed V One 
after another declared, that they had never 
killed any man. At last a shrewd-looking old 
fellow, with a huge bushy beard, made hi* 
appearance, and offered his services. The 



MEDICAL MEN. 135 

pope put the usual question to him. " Tot 
quot," said the applicant, grasping his beard 
with both hands. The pope immediately chose 
him for his physician. 

GOUT. 
Methodb Prophylactique. 

Sur peine de la Gouite un Medecin m'ordonne 

De quitter l'usage du Vin : 
Mais loins de renon^er a ce breuvage divin 

J'acheve de vuider ma tonne. 

Laquais '. vtte a grands flots remplis moi ce chryttal j 

Si le Vin engendre la Goutie, 
Boire jusqu'a la lie est le secret sans doute 

De tarir de source le mal. 

TRANSLATION. 
PROPHYLACTIC PRACTICE. 

" Wine brings the Gout," the Doctors cry; 

And solemly they write, — " Abstain," 
But hence, with sounder reason, I 

Fill up my glass, and drink again. — 

" Is it not wisdom," I wou'd ask, 

" If Wine doth surely cauie the Gout, 

" In bumpers thus to drain my cask, 

" And drink the dang'rous Liquor out ?" 

FRACTURE OF THE THIGH. 

The following piece of grave advice, notwith- 
standing the great name of the counsellor, will 
not, we think, have many followers. — In a 



136 MEDICINE AND 

fracture of the thigh, " the extensors ought to 
be particularly great, the muscles being so 
strong, that, notwithstanding the effect of the 
bandages, their contraction is apt to shorten 
the limb. This is a deformity so deplorable, 
that when there is reason to apprehend it, I 
would advise the patient to suffer the other 
thigh to be broken also, in order to have them 
both of one length." 

PHENOMENA OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION. 

When a muscle contracts, its fibres, more 
or less suddenly shorten and become hard ; 
and, without any preparatory oscillation or 
hesitation, they suddenly acquire such a degree 
of elasticity, that they are enabled to vibrate 
or produce sounds. The colour of the muscle 
does not seem to change at the time it con- 
tracts ; but it has a certain tendency to be dis- 
placed, which is resisted by the aponeuroses. 
It has been disputed whether a muscle is more 
voluminous in its relaxed or contracted state; 
and, although we consider this circumstance by 
no means satisfactorily established, it is hap- 
pily of no very great importance. All the sen- 
sible phenomena of muscular contraction take 
place in muscles; but it is no less certain, that 
they cannot be developed unless the brain and 
nerves contribute their assistance. 



MEDICAL MEN. 137 

If the brain of a man or a brute be com- 
pressed, the power of muscular contraction is 
lost — and, if the nerves running to a muscle 
are cut, it becomes instantly paralysed. With 
the changes that may occur in the muscular 
structure, in a state of contraction, we are com- 
pletely unacquainted ; and, in this respect, it 
resembles the vital actions, of which no expla- 
nation can be given ; notwithstanding the 
frequent hypothetical attempts that have been 
made to illustrate them, but without success. 

In muscular contraction we observe four 
points; viz. intensity — duration — rapidity, and 
extent. 

The intensity of muscular contraction, or, in 
other words, the degree of force with which 
the fibres shorten, is regulated by the action 
of the brain — it is in general subject to the 
will, within limits which vary in each indivi- 
dual. 

A particular organization of the muscles 
favours the intensity of the contractions; such 
as a voluminous fibre, of a deep red, with trans- 
verse stria*. With the same act of solution, 
these would produce effects much stronger 
than muscles with delicate, smooth, and colour- 
less fibres. If, however, to such fibres be 
added a very strong cerebral power, or a great 
degree of strength of volition, the contraction 



138 MEDICINE AND 

will acquire much more remarkable degree of 
intensity ; so that the cerebral influence on the 
one hand, and the disposition of the muscular 
structure on the other, constitute the two ele- 
ments of the intensity of muscular contraction. 

A very energetic cerebral action is seldom 
combined with a disposition of muscular fibres 
favourable to the intensity of contraction. The 
proportion of these two elements is generally 
inverse. When they are combined, astonish- 
ing effects are produced. This combination 
probably existed in the athletae of antiquity; 
and, at present, is observable in rope-dan- 
cers. 

By the influence of the brain solely, muscu- 
lar power may be carried to an extraordinary 
degree : we know the strength of an enraged 
man — of maniacs, of persons in convulsions, &c. 

The duration of contraction is subject to 
the will ; it must not, however, be prolonged 
beyond a certain period, which varies in diffe- 
rent individuals ; for we then experience a sense 
of fatigue, at first but slightly marked, but 
afterwards increasing till the muscle refuses to 
contract any longer. The period at which 
this unpleasant feeling commences, is propor- 
tioned to the intensity of the contraction, and 
the weakness of the individual. To obviate 
this inconvenience, the different movementi 



MEDICAL MEN. 139 

are so ordered that the muscles may act in suc- 
cession, the contraction of each being but of 
short duration; hence the reason we cannot 
stand long in one particular posture; and why 
an attitude requiring the strong and continued 
contraction of small numbers of muscles cannot 
be preserved more than a few moments. The 
sense of fatigue which ensues upon muscular 
contraction, is dissipated by inaction; and 
after some time the muscles again resume their 
power of contraction. 

Within a certain extent the quickness of 
contraction is subjected to central influence: 
this is proved by the manner of our common 
motions ; but beyond this degree, the quick- 
ness of contraction evidently depends upon 
habit. To illustrate this, let any one examine 
the difference with respect to rapidity of 
motion, between a man who touches a piano 
for the first time, and who has been for some 
years in the habit of playing upon the same 
instrument. Some very remarkable individual 
differences are seen, with respect to quickness 
of contraction, both in our common movements, 
and those which are acquired only by practice. 

Volition directs the extent of contraction, 
which, however, must necessarily vary with the 
length of fibres; for long fibres have a greater 
extent of contraction than short ones. 



140 MEDICINE AND 

From what has been said, it would appear, 
in general, that the will has great influence 
over muscular contraction, at the same time, it 
is indispensable to it ; as, under many circum- 
stances, motions occur, not only without the 
concurrence of the will, but in direct oppo- 
sition to it; many remarkable instances of 
this kind take place from habit, passions, and 
diseases. 

Muscular contraction, however, such as we 
have here described, must not be confounded 
with the modifications which it experiences in 
disease, as in convulsions, spasms, tetanus, 
wounds of the brain, &c. ; neither must it be 
confounded with the post mortem appearance 
of muscles : phenomena, no doubt, which it 
must be amusing to study, but by no means 
deserving the importance which Haller and his 
disciples attached to them ; and, above all, they 
must not be blended, under the term irritability, 
with the other modes of contraction, (particu- 
larly that of the muscles,) which occur in the 
animal economy. 

The muscles cannot be distinguished from 
the gelatinous matter which forms and con- 
stitutes the embryo, before the commencement 
of the second month; nor do they present, at 
this period, the characters which they possess 
in the adult. They are of a pale grey, slightly 



MEDICAL MEN. 141 

tinged with red, and receive but a small por- 
tion of blood compared with the quantity they 
afterwards contain. They grow and are deve- 
loped during the progressive growth of the 
body; but this evolution is not strongly mark- 
ed, so that at birth they are slender and but 
little expanded : those, however, of digestion 
or respiration must be excepted, which require, 
and in fact have a much more striking increase. 
During infancy and youth, the nourishment 
of the muscles increases, but they grow prin- 
cipally in length ; hence in infancy and adoles- 
cence, the shape is rounded, slender, and agree- 
able, and nearly the same in the female state. 
In the adult, the shape changes again: the 
muscles increase in thickness, are strongly 
marked under the skin, and greatly augmented 
in bulk; the spaces between them being no 
longer filled up with fat; prominences and 
depressions are formed, which give the body 
an appearance altogether different from that of 
youth. The muscular substance becomes firm, 
its red colour deepens, its chemical nature is 
modified; for daily experience proves that soup 
made with the flesh of young animals has a 
taste, colour and, consistence very different 
from that made from the flesh of those that are 
full grown, which appears to contain more 



142 MEDICINE AND 

fibrine, or omazome, colouring matter of the 
blood, and consequently more iron. 

The nutritive powers of the muscles sensibly 
decrease in old age. These organs diminish in 
volume, become pale, florid, and trembling; 
their contractility is weakened ; the fibres be- 
come coriacious and difficult to be lacerated 

Muscular contraction undergoes nearly the 
same changes as the nourishment of the mus- 
cles. Weak and scarcely discernible is the 
fcetus, its activity increases at birth, and rapidly 
in infancy and youth ; acquires its highest 
degree of perfection in the adult ; and, at 
length, is entirely lost in the decrepit old man. 
■ — Majendie. 

DR. BAILLIE 

Was born Oct. 27th, 1761, in the manse of 
Tholy, near Hamilton, in Scotland. His father 
was the Rev. James Baillie, D. D. (a supposed 
descendant of the family of Baillie of Jervis- 
wood,) some time minister of the kirk of Shotts, 
(one of the most barren and wild parts of the 
low country of Scotland,) and afterward profes. 
sor of divinity in the university of Glasgow. 

His mother was Dorothea, daughter of Mr. 
John Hunter, of Kilbride, in the county of 
Lanark, (a descendant of the family of Hunter, 



MEDICAL MEN. 143 

of Hunterstown,) and sister of the two cele- 
brated anatomists Dr. William and Mr. 
John Hunter. 

baillie's lectures. 

Previous to Dr. Hunter's death, which took 
place in March, 1783, his nephew had become 
the chief teacher of practical anatomy; and 
after that event, lie became his successor in 
the lectures, having for an associate Mr. 
Cruickshank, who, during Dr. Hunter's life, 
had given a part of the lectures. Dr. Baillie 
began to lecture in 1784-5, and soon acquired 
the highest reputation as an anatomist and a 
teacher of anatomy ; to which character his 
arduous labours in the formation of his collec- 
tion of anatomical preparations, consisting of 
nearly eleven hundred articles, greatly contri- 
buted. He possessed the valuable talent of 
making an abstruse and difficult subject plain : 
his prelections were remarkable for that lucid 
order and clearness of expression which pro- 
ceed from a perfect conception of the subject ; 
and he never permitted any variety of display 
to divert him from his great object, of conveying 
information in the simplest and most intelligi- 
ble way, and so as to be most useful to the 
pupils. He had no desire to get rid of national 
peculiarities of language; or, if he had, he 



144 MEDICINE AND 

did not perfectly succeed. Not only did tlie 
Janguage of his own land linger on his tongue, 
but its recollections clung to his heart; and 
to the last, amidst the splendour of his profes- 
sional life, and Ihe seductions of a court, he 
took a hearty and an honourable interest in 
the happiness and the eminence of his native 
country. But there was a shrewdness and 
strength of mind which distinguished him, and 
much more than compensated for the want of 
the polish and purity of English pronunciation. 
When the increase of his practice as a physi- 
cian made it necessary for him to decline lec- 
turing, which it did in 1799, the students in 
Windmill-street showed their sense of his me- 
rits, and of their obligations to him, by present- 
ing him with a very handsome and valuable piece 
of plate, bearing a Latin inscription expressive 
of their gratitude. 

MEDICO-LEGAL OPINION. 
A person observed to an eminent Lawyer, 
that Buchan's Domestic Medicine was a good 
book, because it qualifies every man to be his 
own physician. " How far that may be the 
case," observed the man of Law, " I will not 
presume to determine ; but I may be allowed to 
speak decidedly as to my own profession : and 
so I hesitate not to pronounce, that every man 
who is his own lawyer, has a fool for a client." 



medical men. 145 

phillips's physiological theories. 

Heat, according to Sir R. Phillips, is atomi 
in motion, and the perception and phenomena 
of heat are experienced whenever atoms in 
motion part with their motion to other atoms, 
either in concentration or in a rapid succession. 

Thus a tile struck by a hammer visibly dis- 
perses the momentum of the hammer in the fly- 
ing pieces; but a piece of iron so struck does 
not break, but in dispersing invisible atoms, ex- 
hibits heat. 

Water put on the iron in this state is dis- 
persed in gas, carries off the motion, and cools 
the iron, and the momentum of the hammer is 
transferred to the water. 

The atoms of water evolve into a space al- 
ready full of atoms, and by them are deflected 
into orbits; hence all visible gas, and gas gene- 
rally, is formed into rounded masses, as clouds 
of steam, smoke, &c , consisting of atoms in 
circular motion. 

If oxyde of manganese is put on the hot iron 
it also cools it, and is converted into oxygen 
gas, or into atoms driven by others into circular 
orbits. 

When these masses or clouds of atoms, or gas, 
are refixed or condensed, they thereby part with 
the motion which made them gazeous, and ex- 

vol. II. L 



146 MEDICINE AND 

hibit heat and momentum, or heat and force or 
energy in whatever receives the motion : for 
whatever motion is parted with by one body 
must, in the very terms of the proposition, be re- 
ceived by another. 

But atmospheric air is gas, or atoms in circu- 
lar motion, and, in respiration, we fix it, or cer- 
tain portions of it, in the cells of the lungs; 
hence, then, the heat of the body aad blood, 
and hence, also, animal strength and energy, 
for they breathe and fix in proportion to the 
energy which they exert. 

The lungs are the prime movers of animals 
and animal heat and energy, or, in other words, 
animal life is derived from the gas in which the 
animal lives, the moving atoms of which gas 
are partly fixed by the mechanical and chemi- 
cal process of respiration. 

All heat and flame is the similar fixation of 
atoms. 

Continued respiration or fixation of gas cre- 
ates, however, accelerated heat in fche system, 
or an extra excitement of the atoms to radiate, 
and hence evaporation or perspiration. 

But this departure or radiation of atoms from 
the body diminishes the aggregate or bulk, and 
hence the necessity of new assimilations by 
food or soil carried to the roots, or animal ab- 
sorbents in the portable cavity of the stomach. 



MEDICAL MEN. 147 

Gas fixing, therefore, creates animal heat and 
energy. 

Evaporation diminishes it. 

Healthy action is the balance of the two. 

But the gas fixed has more motion than sub* 
stance, as appears from its invisibility, and its 
relative permanency, and that created and eva- 
porated at the skin, has more substance than 
motion, as appears from its visibility and easy 
condensation ; hence, in the process, matter or 
substance is lost. 

Food, or assimilating soil, keeps up the bulk. 

As respiration is constant, when evaporation 
is checked, accumulated excitement in the sys- 
tem, or accelerated atomic motion takes place, 
called Fever. 

The remedies are, less respiration or repose, 
and less food till the evaporation is restored. 

Of course, the same excitement on different 
systems produces the varieties of fever. 

All other phenomena of the system may be 
explained and illustrated on the same reason- 
ing and principles. 

This theory first appeared in 1821, in Phil- 
lips's Essays, and, as yet, has met with no oppo- 
sition. 

JOHN OF GADDESDEN. 

The celebrated John of Gaddesden, one of 
the great luminaries of the dark ages, and the 
L 2 



143 MEDICINE AND 

first Englishman who had the honour of being 
employed at court as a physician, whose con- 
summate impudence and singular drollery have 
procured him some readers even in the present 
age, notwithstanding his almost illegible black 
letter, and almost unintelligible crabbed bar- 
barous Latin, was particularly attentive to that 
distinction between rich and poor patients. He 
tells us of one medicine so good, that it was 
only proper for the rich ; and of several of 
his favourite medicines he directs a double 
dose for the rich, "Duplum sit si pro divite." 
This prerogative of the rich, it is presumed, 
even the beggars at their doors will hardly envy 
them : and we can laugh at the ludicrous ab- 
surdity of such a proposal. But it is impossi- 
ble to laugh at the proposal, or at the practice, 
of bestowing on the sick poor in the hospital 
a superfluity of that kind of assistance which 
the rich reject for themselves, when they are 
sick, and could not, without horror, think of 
having employed on themselves or their fami- 
lies. Is it in any respect less horrible when 
employed on the poor? 

HUGH DOWNMAN, M. D. 
Was the son of a gentleman of good fortune 
in the neighbourhood of Exeter. He was edu- 
cated first at the public school of that place, 
from whence he was removed to Jesus College 



MEDICAL MEW. 149 

Cambridge, where he took the degree of A. M. 
He was designed for the church, and actually 
took orders, and performed the duties of a cler- 
gyman for a few years in his father's neigh- 
bourhood ; but a disorder to which he was 
subject (afterwards proved to be a liver com- 
plaint) rendering any exertion of his voice 
painful and dangerous, he went to Edinburgh 
and graduated as a physician. He was the 
author of several poems ; viz. " The Land of 
the Muses,"—" Infancy,"—" The Death Song 
of Logbrog," — "Poems sacred to Love and 
Beauty," &c. He also wrote three tragedies ; 
1. " Lucius Junius Brutus," historical play, 
8vo, 1779. 2. " Editha," 8vo, 1784, printed 
at Exeter, reprinted 1792. 8. " Belisarius," 
8vo. 1786 and J 792. He died at his native 
place, Sept. 23, 1809. 

JAMES SILAS BODD, SURGEON. 
In 1752 this gentleman published " An Es- 
say towards the Natural History of the Her- 
ring." He took an active part in the contest 
about Elizabeth Canning, and published a pam- 
phlet in her defence. He afterwards composed 
*' a lecture on hearts," which he publicly 
read at Exeter-change, with some degree of 
success. He was also president of one of the 
debating societies, and attended several of 
them. One of his dramatic pieces has been 



150 MEDICINE AND 

acted once, and published, entitled " Gallic 
Gratitude ; or the Frenchman in India," a come- 
dy, 8vo. 1779. This was republished, as acted 
in Dublin, under the title of the * Funeral 
Pile," comic opera, 12mo. 1799. He died in 
Dublin, March, 1805, at the great age, it is 
said, of 104. 

DR. GLYNN'S PRESUMPTION. 

Being consulted by a person now a high 
dignitary of the church, but then a hard stu- 
dent at the University, the Doctor, with bis 
usual sagacity, perceiving that his dejection of 
spirits arose in a great measure from his having 
devoted too little attention to the fair sex, and 
too much to his book's, wrote him the following 
prescription : 

R. Papillarum Tirginum manipulos duos, 
preme paulisper ; 
Dein poDe rem in re et fiat miatura, s. a. 

GALL-BLADDER. 

Amongst the inhabitants of the kingdom of 
Laos, in the Peninsula on the other side of the 
Ganges, there are some people who are per- 
suaded that by rubbing the head of their ele- 
phant with human gall, they inspire this animal 
with an extraordinary power and courage, which 
renders them invincible. Above all, the great 



MEDICAL MEN. 151 

entertain tliis extravagant opinion: they give 
a sum of money to some desperadoes, who kill 
in the forests the first person they meet with, 
open him, take out his gall-bladder, and carry 
it to their employer, with the head of the per- 
son they have killed, as a proof that the vesicle 
came from a man. 2 

DOCTOR DARWIN. 

During Darwin's early residence at Litch- 
field, Mr. Sneyd, then of Bishton, and a few 
more gentlemen of Staffordshire, prevailed 
upon the Doctor to join them in an expedition, 
by water, from Burton to Nottingham, and on 
to Newark. They had cold provision on board, 
and plenty of wine. It was Midsummer; the 
day hot and sultry. The noon-tide meal had 
been made, and the glass gone gaily round. 
It was one of those few instances, in which the 
medical votary of the Naiads transgressed his 
general and strict sobriety. If not absolutely 
intoxicated, his spirits were in a high state of 
exhiliration. On the boat approaching Not- 
tingham, within the distance of a few fields, 
he surprised his companions by stepping, with- 
out any previous notice, from the boat into 
the middle of the river, and swimming to 
shore. They saw him get upon the bank, and 
walk coolly over the meadows towards the 



152 MEDICINE AND 

town. They called to him in vain ; but he did 
not once turn his head. 

Anxious lest he should take a dangerous cold 
by remaining in his wet clothes, and uncertain 
whether he intended to desert the party, they 
rowed instantly to the town, at which they 
had not designed to have touched, and went 
in search of their river god. 

In passing through the market-place, tbey 
saw him standing upon a tub, encircled by a 
crowd of people, and resisting the entreaties of 
an apothecary of the place, one of his old 
acquaintance, who was importuning him to go 
to his house, and accept of other clothes till 
his own could be dried. The party, on passing 
through the crowd, were surprised to hear him 
speaking without any degree of his usual stam- 
mering. 

" Have I not told you, my friend, that I had 
drank a considerable quantity of wine before I 
committed myself to the river. You know my 
general sobriety: and, as a professional man, 
you ought to know, that the usual existence 
of internal stimulants would, in its effects upon 
the system, counteract the external cold and 
moisture." 

Then perceiving his companions near him, he 
nodded, smiled, and waved his hand, as en- 



MEDICAL MEN. 153 

joining them silence; thus, without hesitation, 
addressing the populace: — 

" Ye men of Nottingham, listen to me ; you 
are ingenious and industrious mechanics. By 
your industry, life's comforts are procured for 
yourselves and families. If you lose your 
health, the power of being industrious will for- 
sake you. That you know ; but you may not 
know, that to breathe fresh and changed air 
constantly, is not less necessary to preserve 
health, than sobriety itself. Air becomes un- 
wholesome in a few hours if the windows be 
shut. Open those of your sleeping rooms 
whenever you quit them to go to your work- 
shops. Keep the windows of your workshops 
open, whenever the weather is not insupport- 
ably cold. I have no interest in giving you 
this advice. RememLer what I, your country- 
man, and a physician, tell you. ' If you would 
not bring infection and disease upon yourselves, 
and to your wives and little ones, change the 
air you breathe; change it many times in a 
day by opening your windows." 

So saying, he stept down from the tub, and 
returning with his party to their boat, they 
pursued their voyage. 

THOMAS WILLIS, M. D, 

The works of this eminent anatomist, philo- 
sopher, and physician, are highly treasurable : 



154 MEDICINE AND 

he was one of the most elegant latin writers of 
his age; and his practice was equal to his fame. 
He had a deep insight into every branch 
of science, especially anatomy. His " Cere- 
bri Anatome," and his work, " De Anima 
Brutoium," gained him great reputation. 

He was a liberal benefactor to the poor, it 
being his custom to dedicate all his Sunday 
fees to their relief; it was also his custom to 
attend church service early in the morning, oh 
which account he procured prayers to be read 
at unusual hours during his life; and, at his 
death, settled 20/. per annum to continue them. 
His table was the resort of great and learned 
men. He was one of the first members of the 
Royal Society, and he declined the honor of 
knighlhood. 

WILLIAM SAUNDERS, M. D. 

Dr. Saunders came to London and lectured 
on his own account, and on a similar plan to 
Cullen, in Covent Garden, where his class was 
numerously attended* and produced 1000/. per 
annum. 

Shortly after, he married the daughter of a 
respectable merchant in the city, by whose 
interest, and his own fair fame, he became 
physician to Guy's Hospital, where he founded 
the school of medicine, which has continued 



MEDICAL MEN. 155 

with undiminished reputation to this day. He 
was powerfully aided in his election by Lord 
Mansfield, whose good opinion and friendship 
he had been fortunate enough to ohtain, on a 
former unsuccessful canvas. Calling on his 
lordship one morning, he had the mortification 
to find his interest previously engaged ; but, 
with his usual urbanity and grace, he entered 
into conversation with the young physician, on 
the then disputed subject, the " colour of the 
skin." This afforded the doctor a fair oppor- 
tunity of displaying that professional acumen 
for which he shone conspicuous, so as to 
secure the esteem and future support of that 
illustrious character. 

THE VILLAGE APOTHECARY AND 
CLERGYMAN. 

But soon a loud and hasty summons calls, 
Shakes the thin roof, and echoes round the walls ; 
Anon a figure enters, quaintly neat, 
All pride and business, bustle and conceit. 
With looks unalter'd by these scenes of woe, 
With speed that entering, speaks his haste to go; 
He bids the gazing throng around him fly, 
And carries Fate and Physic in his eye; 
A potent quack, long versed in human ills, 
Who first insults the victim whom he kills ; 
Whose murderous hand a drowsy bench protect, 
And whoss most tender mercy is neglect. 



156 MEDICINE AND 

Paid by the Parish for attendance here, 
He wears contempt upon his sapient sneer. 
In haste he seeks the bed where misery lies, 
Impatience mark'd in his averted eyes: 
And, some habitual queries hurried o'er, 
Without reply he rushes to the door : 
His drooping patient, long inur'd to pain, 
And long unheeded, knows remonstrance vain ; 
He ceases now the feeble help to crave 
Of man, and mutely hastens to the grave. 

But ere his death some pious doubts arise, 
Some simple fears which " bold bad men" despise ; 
Fain would he ask the Parish priest to prove 
His title certain to the joys above ; 
For this he sends the murmuring nurse, who calls 
The holy stranger to these dismal walls ; 
And doth not he, the pious man, appear, 
He, " passing rich with forty pounds a year?" 
Ah ! no ; a shepherd of a different stock, 
And far unlike him, feeds this little flock ; 
A jovial youth, who thinks his Sunday's task 
As much as God or man may fairly ask ; 
The rest he gives to loves and labours light, 
To fields the morning, and to feasts the night ; 
None better skilPd, the noisy pack to guide, 
To urge the chace, to cheer them, or to chide : 
Sure in his shot, his game he seldom miss'd, 
And seldom failed to win his game of Whist. 
Then, while such honours bloom around his head, 
Shall he sit sadly by the sick man's bed, 
To raise the hope he feels not, or with zeal 
To combat fears that even the pious feel ? 

Crabbe. 



MEDICAL MEIf. 157 



DR. JOHN AIKIN, 



Known to the public as a very pleasing and 
accomplished writer, was born at Kibworth, in 
Leicestershire, and was the son of the Rev. Mr. 
Aikiu, a dissenting minister, who kept a classi- 
cal academy at that place, and was afterwards 
one of the professors at Warrington. He was, 
at a suitable age, apprenticed to a surgeon and 
apothecary, at Uppingham, in Rutland ; and, 
on completing his term, was sent to Edinburgh, 
where he graduated as M. D. He settled in 
his profession at Yarmouth, and subsequently 
removed to Norwich. His celebrated sister, 
Mrs. Barbauld, and her husband, re-opened 
a school at Thetford, in that county, and 
thereby added to the weight of his local influ- 
ence. Although the most amiable of men, 
he was neither empirical enough, nor suffici- 
ently warm and popular in his address, to 
supersede others in their profitable practice. 
To avail himself, therefore, at once of his pub- 
lic reputation as a man of letters, and of the 
society of his sister, who then had settled at 
Hampstead, he removed to London in 1794. 
Here he sought to combine practice with 
literary engagements among the booksellers; 
but, as the public never favour any man in two 
capacities, his success as an author shut him 



158 MEDICINE AND 

out from medical practice, and he settled pro- 
fessedly as a man of letters, in the year 1802, 
at Stoke Newington, where Mr. and Mrs. Bar- 
bauld also took up their residence. A few 
years since he suffered a severe attack of the 
palsy, which deprived him of his corporeal 
and mental faculties ; and, to other attacks of 
this disease, he at length fell a victim in De- 
cember, 1822, in the 76th year of his age. 

His early works consisted of a " History of 
Medicine ;" and a work " Medical Biography." 

ARCHBISHOP GRINDALL 

Was wont to say, that the physicians here 
in England were not good at the cure of par- 
ticular diseases, but had only the power to 
bind and loose. 

WILLIAM WALWIN. 

A great dealer in nostrums, among which 
were his succus vita and his sanguis vita ; his 
medulla vita, vita vitee, and his vis vita, in a 
book recommending " physic for families," 
informs the world, that he is not without a 
hope of curing diseases, " without the trouble, 
hazard, pain, or danger, of purges, vomits, 
bleedings, issues, glysters, blisters, opium, anti- 
mony, and quicksilver, so full of perplexity 
in sickness." He gives a long list of cures on 



MEDICAL MEN. 159 

his own credit, the practice of procuring and 
printing oaths not being then in fashion. 

EMPIRICAL DISQUISITION. 

In 1684, John Browne, surgeon to the king, 
published his " Adenochoiradelogia, or king's 
evil swellings, together with the royal gift of 
healing or cure thereof, by imposition of hands, 
performed for above 640 years by our kings." 
He jiives an account of the number of persons 
touched for the king's evil from May 1660, to 
Sept. 1664, by King Charles II., viz. 

In 1660 6795 

1661 4619 

1662 4275 

1663 4667 

1664 8335 

And from another account, by Mr. Thomas 
Dankley, it appears, that monarch, from 1667 
to 1682, actually touched, on the average, 4000 
people every year. 

APPARATUS OF DIGESTION. 

The digestive apparatus may be represented 
as a long tube diversely contorted upon itself, 
wide at certain points, narrow at others ; sus- 
ceptible of becoming wide and narrow, and into 
which are poured a great quantity of fluids, by 
means of particular ducts. Anatomists divide 



160 MED1CIME AND 

the digestive canal into several portions, viz. 
the mouth, the pharynx, the oesophagus, the 
stomach, the small intestines, the large intes- 
tines, and the anus. 

Two membranous coats form the parietes of 
the intestinal canal throughout its whole extent. 
The inner one, which is destined to be in con- 
tact with the aliment, consists of a mucous mem- 
brane, the appearance and structure of which 
vary in each of its portions, so that it is no 
longer the same at the pharynx as at the mouth, 
nor at the stomach as at the oesophagus, Sec. 
At the lips and anus this membrane is lost in 
the skin. 

The second coat of the intestinal canal is 
muscular, and is composed of two layers of 
fibres, a longitudinal and a circular one. The 
arrangement, thickness, and the nature of these 
fibres differ in proportion as they are observed 
at the. mouth, the oesophagus, the large intes- 
tines, &c. 

A great number of blood-vessels open into 
or commence from this canal ; but its abdomi- 
nal portion receives an infinitely greater number 
than that part which is above it. In the latter 
none are to be met with, with the exception 
of such as are necessary to its nutrition, and the 
inconsiderable secretion of which it is the seat; 
whilst the number and size of the vessels which 




; & WIIXIS, Ml). 



MEDICAL MEN. 161 

belong to the abdominal portion, indicate that 
it is the agent of a very considerable secretion. 
The chyliferous vessels take their origin exclu- 
sively from the small intestines. 

With respect to the nerves in the digestive 
canal, they are distributed in the inverse order 
of its vessels, i. e. the cephalic, cervical, and 
pectoral parts receive a great many more than 
the abdominal portion, with the exception of 
the stomach, where the two nerves of the 
eighth pair are terminated. The remaining 
portion of the canal receives scarcely any of the 
cerebral nerves. The only nerves that are there 
observed, proceed from the sub-diaphragmatic 
ganglions of the great sympathetic. Farther 
on, the relation that exists between the mode in 
which the nerves are distributed, and the func- 
tions of the superior and inferior portions of 
the digestive canal, will be seen. 

The bodies which pour fluids into the di- 
gestive canal, are, 1st, the digestive mucous 
membrane itself; 2d, some of the isolated fol- 
licles, which are spread in great number 
throughout the whole extent of this membrane; 
3d, the conglomerated follicles, which meet 
each other at the isthmus faucium, between the 
pillars of the velum pendulum palaii, and some- 
times at the junction of the oesophagus and 
stomach; 4th, the mucous glands, which are 

vol ii.. j^rr^^^^gmt^ 



162 MEDICINE AND 

found in greater or less number in the parietes 
of the cheeks, the arch of the palate, and round 
the oesophagus ; 5th, the parotid, submaxillary 
and sublingual glands, which secrete the saliva 
into the mouth. The liver and pancreas pour 
the bile and pancreatic juice through distinct 
ducts into the upper part of the small intes- 
tines, called the duodenum. 

All the digestive organs contained in the 
abdominal cavity are immediately covered in 
a manner more or less perfect by the serous 
membrane, called the peritoneum. This mem- 
brane, owing to the manner in which it is dis- 
posed, and to its physical and vital properties, 
is of great use during the process of digestion, 
whether it be in preserving to the different 
organs their respective relations, or in favour- 
ing the variations of increase or diminution, or 
in lubricating the intestines when they act 
upon each other, or the parts in their imrae. 
diate neighbourhood. 

NATURE AND PHYSIC. 

Says Nature to Physic, what pity that we, 
Who ought to be friends, should so seldom agree-: 
Who ought to assist and to succour each other, 
And in amity live, like a sister and brother. 
But to look for this concord, alas, is in vain ! 
Dame Nature of Physic has much to complain; 



MEDICAL MEN. 163 

Tho' a goddess I am — yet, like the weak sex, 

The more I'm perverse if my temper you vex; 

And your doctors, whate'er they think proper to say, 

For ever are putting me out of my way. 

With medical legions my humours they chase, 

Till pallid resentment appears in my face ; 

Aperients, astringents, narcotics, combine, 

To thwart and oppose me in ev'ry design ; 

And by vollies of pills discharg'd at my head, 

My strength is exhausted, my energy dead. 

But Physic should know I am not to be taught, 

By severe flagellation to do what I ought; 

That my faults may be mended by gentle correction. 

To which science and talents must give the direction. 

Would you wish then, ye doctors, your practice may prove, 

To conciliate my favour and cherish my love, 

With genius like Huet's* take Nature in hand, 

Conduct by persuasion, not force by command; 

Her errors he views with a lover's fond sight, 

And courts her when wrong — till she yields to be right. 

EMPEROR OF CHINA. 
Sir George Staunton used to relate a charac- 
teristic anecdote of the Emperor of China. He 
inquired of Sir George the manner in which 
physicians were paid in England. When his 
majesty was made to comprehend what the prac- 
tice was, he exclaimed, " Can any man in Eng- 
land afford to be ill? Now I will inform you," 
said he, " how I deal with my physicians. I 
have four, to whom the care of my health is com- 

* The poem was addressed to Dr. Huet. 
M 2 



164 MEDICINE AND 

nutted, and a certain weekly salary is allowed 
to them ; but the moment I am ill, that salary is 
stopped till I am well again. I need not inform 
you, that my diseases are never of any long con- 
tinuance." 

FRANCIS J. DE VALANGIN, M. D. 
This gentleman studied physic at Leyden, 
under the celebrated Boerhaave : still, though 
educated for and brought up to this line of 
life, it was not his original intention to follow 
it as a profession, his connections having led 
him to look for advancement in a different 
career. Towards the end of the reign of 
George the Second, he kissed the king's hand, 
on receiving some diplomatic appointment in 
the court of Madrid : but, on the retreat of his 
patron from administration, about the same 
time, Mr. de Valangin declined the intended 
honor, and returned to medicine, which he 
thenceforward followed as a profession, and 
fixed his abode in Soho-square. 

About 1772, he purchased some ground near 
White Conduit Fields, where he erected a 
house extensive in its conveniences, but fanci- 
ful enough in its construction, being built on a 
plan laid down by himself. His pursuit in all 
the branches of knowledge connected with his 
profession was sedulous in the extreme ; and 
the result was, a discovery of several simple 



MEDICAL MEN. ]G5 

prepare I ions, which he found of great service 
iu parfieular cases ; one of which, named the 
Balsam of Life, he presented to Apothecaries' 
Hall, where it is still sold with his name. For 
some favour conferred, he was made a liverv- 
man of the corporation of Loriners, and twice 
served the office of master. Dr. De Valangin 
had a particular taste for music and painting; 
H the former art he was not an unsuccessful 
performer; and has left behind him some re- 
marks on the theory of composition. 

MAXWELL GARTHSIIORE, M. D. 

What is called the destiny of most meu in 
life, turns chiefly on the manner in which their 
time is spent from 20 to 30. During his resi- 
dence, as an apothecary, at Uppingham, Dr. 
Garthshore laid the foundation of many valu- 
able friendships, some of which had a decisive 
influence on his future proceedings. Among 
these may be mentioned that of Lord Carberry; 
of Geo. Brudenell, Esq. 40 years member for 
the county; of Dr. afterwards Sir George 
Baker, a name, as his elegant latinity attests, 
not less eminent as a scholar than as a phvsi- 
can; Dr. R. Puheney, highly distinguished" as 
a botanist; and, perhaps, above all, the laie 
dean of Christ Church, Dr. Cyril Jackson. 

Indeed, from a very early period of life, Dr. 



16(5 MEDICINE AND 

Garthshore had the happiness of exciting good- 
will and confidence in men of eminent charac- 
ter. In Lord Charles Hay's regiment he had 
been professionally connected with Mr. Huck, 
» gentleman who, through the discerning pa- 
tronage of Sir John Pingle, a wealthy marriage 
with the niece of Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, 
and his own professional merits, acquired much 
consideration in London as Dr. Huck Saunders. 
At his death, above 30 years after their ac- 
quaintance and intimacy, this gentleman named 
Dr. Garthshore one of the guardians of his 
daughters; the elder of whom is now Vis- 
countess Melville, and the youngest Countess 
of Westmoreland. 

SURGICAL ADDRESS. 
When Pultowa was besieged by Charles the 
Twelfth, in 1709, that monarch was so severely 
wounded, by a cannon-ball in the leg, that the 
surgeons had determined on amputation. One 
of them, named Newman, however, undertook 
to cure the king, without proceeding to this 
last extremity, provided his majesty would sub- 
tnit to all the incisions requisite to avoid the 
necessary amputation. The king replied, " I 
do not wish to be spared more than the lowest 
of my soldiers. Cut as you think necessary, I 
command you." Newman, encouraged by this 



MEDICAL MEN. 167 

discourse, made profound incisions, during 
which the king himself held his leg. The ope- 
ration was conducted with so much skill, that 
the king recovered and saved his leg. 

This instance shews in what consists the me- 
rit of a real surgeon. He saves a limb, which 
another, less skilful, would have sacrificed. It 
is easy to find operators, but not so to find well- 
informed men, who know how to perform a cure 
and avoid a murderous operation; of such it 
may be truly said, they are rati nantes in gur- 
gite vasto. 

MATERIA MEDICA. 

Nothing tends more clearly to illustrate the 
improvements which the healing art has under- 
gone within the last half century, than a com- 
parative view of the past and present state of 
the materia medica. It was by no means un- 
common for an hundred, or even more, ingre- 
dients to be blended together in one prescrip- 
tion, by which means it became impossible to 
ascertain either the properties of any of the 
medicines taken individually, or to separate 
the efficacious from such as were inert or hurt- 
ful. If it must be allowed that we still have 
sometimes occasion to see medicines somewhat 
unskilfully or capriciously combined, at least 
we have discontinued the exhibition of mille- 



168 MEDICINE AND 

pedes, dead men's bones, and the farrago of 
disgusting remedies formerly held in repute:* 
even the royal touch, and the touch of a felon, 
are now regarded as pretty much the same. In 
this country, the works of Duncan, Thompson, 
and Paris, have greatly contributed to this good 
effect; and two recent American publications 
shew, that our transatlantic brethren are not 
behind-hand in this respect. The authors on 
the subject to which we allude, are Doctors 
Chapman and Eberle. The arrangement adopt- 
ed by the latter, of whose production we shall 
give some short account, is that proposed by 
Dr. Granville, which, he is of opinion, com- 
bines, in some degree, the advantages both 
of Cullen's system and that of Alibert. To 
this choice there can be no particular ob- 
jection, conceiving it of more importance that 
a good account of the various medicines in 
use should be given, than absolute accuracy 

* The Portuguese pharmacopoeia is nearly upon a 
level with that of other European nations; but the Spa- 
nish pharmacopoeia is filled with drugs which would be 
much better in their proper place — the dunghill, than in 
the pharmacy, if we may credit the Leipsic Literary 
Gazette, (Sept. 1823) which specitically quotes the follow- 
ing articles : excrementa pavonis; aesypus, qui est sub- 
stantia oleageneosa extractiva lance ovince lotione extracta 
et inspissata, (the filth, grease, or oil of sheep's wool before 
it be washed) ; condita inlestina lupij mines integri, 6fc. 



MEDICAL MEN. 169 

observed in their arrangement. Some great 
general divisions, indeed, are requisite to assist 
the memory, and facilitate the acquisition of 
knowledge; but, we believe, any of those in 
use are sufficient for all practical purposes. 

There is, in the human mind, a natural ten- 
dency to classification; and, when we have the 
means of founding 1 his upon obvious and unde- 
niable relations, the advantages resulting to 
science are of the highest importance; witness 
the various branches of natural history, botany, 
mineralogy, and zoology. Here the arrange- 
ments are founded, not on occult or supposed 
properties, but on external and visible charac- 
ters. Not so in medical science: here we have 
to trace the relations borne by external agents 
to living bodies — relations so complicated and 
obscure, as to account, most satisfactorily, for the 
imperfections of all the systems of materia mt- 
dica hitherto proposed, and leave us but little 
hope of seeing this defect very speedily removed. 
The words of a recent French writer seem 
applicable to this subject: — " Why reverse the 
natural order of things, the progressive march 
of knowledge] To create the classification be- 
fore the facts, is it not, to use the expression 
of a celebrated author, vouloir arranger une 
chambre vuidel* Is it not one of the weak- 

• To wish to put an empty room in order. 



170 MRDICINE AND 

nesses of human nature to wish to arrive at 
general conclusions before we have collected 
the details? Have the brilliant efforts of genius 
advanced science so much as the continued 
labours of a small number of individuals, born 
for observation, enlightened, studious, and mo- 
dest? Let us cease, then, to attach to these 
systems, which are more or less arbitrary, a 
degree of importance which is much more im- 
periously required for the investigation of facts, 
and the search after truth. Nature derides 
our classifications and systems; and, while we 
vainly attempt to subject her phenomena to ar- 
rangement purely arbitrary, she amuses herself 
with creating endless anomalies, which over- 
throw our systems, confound our theories, and 
seem to warn us that we are not permitted to 
raise the veil with which she conceals her sub- 
lime operation.* 

The first chapter of Dr. Eberle's book is 

* Memoire sur cette question propose par la societe 
de medecine de Paris : " determiner si dans l'etat actuel da 
nos connoissances, on peut etablir une classification regu- 
liere de Medicamens, fondee sur leurs proprietes raedici- 
nales." Par M Casi, Pharmacien, k Lyons, 

Memoir on this question proposed by the Society of 
Medicine, Paris : " To determine whether, in the actual 
state of our knowledge, a regular classification of medica- 
ments can be established, founded on their medicinal pTO* 
perttei." By M. Cass, &c. 



MEDICAL MEN. 171 

devoted to a consideration of the modus oper- 
andi of medicines, chiefly with a view of invali- 
dating the assertion made by Dr. Chapman, 
that " the ancient notion, which would refer 
the operation of medicines to their entrance 
into the circulation, is perfectly gratuitous, 
originating at a period of darkness, and when 
medicine was comparatively in its infancy ; and 
is now abandoned by every one whose intelli- 
gence has at all kept pace with the progress of 
our science." We agree with our author, that 
this assertion, on the part of Dr. Chapman, is 
" entirely gratuitous." Opposed to it we have 
the testimonies of Mayer,* Sir E. Home.t 
Magendie, J Tiedeman, and Gmeliu;§ and, 
should Dr. Chapman disregard the authorities 
of foreigners, we refer him to the statement of 
his countrymen, Drs. Haslam, Coates, Law- 
rence, Macneven, Anderson, and Ducachet, an 
account of whose most important experiments 
have, from time to time, appeared in the " Lon- 
don Medical Repository," and other medical 
journals of this country. 



» Archiv. fiir die Physiologic, von J. F. Meckel. 

t Philosophical Transactions, 1811. 

J Precis Elementaire de Physiologic 

§ Versuche uber die Wege, puf Welchen substanzen, 
aus dem mager und darmcanal ins blut gelanger, u.s. w. 
Von F. Tiedeman, M. D. and L. Gmelin, M. D. 



172 MEDICINE AND 

EVIDENCE ON A MURDER, 
In 1699, Spencer Cowper, an eminent law- 
yer, and nephew of the Lord Chancellor Cow- 
per, was charged with a murder, but doubts 
arose whether the lady found dead was 
drowned by him or any body, or whether she 
voluntarily drowned herself, for she did not 
sink, and had no water in her intestines. As 
it was a case of great moment, the sages of the 
day were ranged on two sides, and the follow- 
ing is their evidence, copied verbatim from the 
published trial: — 

On John Dimsdale, jun. the surgeon, being sworn, 

Mr. Cowper desired that some eminent physicians, 
that were come from London, might be called into 
court, and hear the evidence the surgeons gave; 
whereupon Dr. Sloane, Dr. Garth, Dr. Morley, Dr. 
Gilstrop, Dr. Harriot, Dr. Wollaston, Dr. Crell, Mr. 
William Cowper, Mr. Bartlett, and Mr. Camlin, 
came into court. 

Dimsdale then deposed, That he was sent for to 
Mrs. Stout's, and went down with Mr. Camlin and 
viewed the corpse, and found a little swelling on the 
side of her neck, and she was black on both sides, 
more particularly on the left side, and between her 
breasts, up towards the collar-bone ; and there was a 
little mark upon one of her arms. 

Mr. Jones. How were her ears ? 

Dimsdale. There was a settling of blood on both 
sides her neck. There was a blackness on both ears. 



MF.DICAL MEN. 173 

Camper. When you returned to the coroner's in- 
quest, what did you certify as your opinion ? 

Dimtdale. I certified there was a settling of blood, 
bill how it came I could not tell. 

Cowper. Did not you say, it was no more than a 
common stagnation, usual in dead bodies? 
Dimsdale. I do not remember a word of it. 
Cowper. Had she any circle about her neck ? 
Dimsdale. No, upon my oath. 
Mr. Coatsworth, the surgeou deposed, That in 
April last he was sent for, by Dr. Phillips, to come 
to Hertford, to see ihe body of Mrs. Stout opened, 
who had been buried six weeks; and the doctor told 
him there was a suspicion she was murdered, and her 
relations would have her taken up and opened. That 
•n the 27th of April he lay at Mrs. Stout's, and he 
understood by her, she wanted to be satisfied whe- 
ther her daughter was with child. That on the 28th 
the corpse was opened, that her face and neck, to her 
shoulders, appeared black, and so much corrupted, 
that they were unwilling to proceed further; how- 
ever, her mother would have it done, and she was 
ojtened, and they perceived the stomach and guts 
were as full of wind as if they had been blown with 
a pair of bellows. That they put the guts aside and 
came to the uterus, and Dr. Phillips shewed it in his 
hand, and afterwards cut it out and laid it on the 
table, and opened it, and they saw into the cavity o* 
it, and if there had been any thing there, as minute 
as a hair, they might have seen it ; but it w as per- 
fectly free and empty. That the stomach was opened 
with an incision knife, and it sunk flat, and let out 



174 MEDICINE AND 

wind, but no water. Afterwards they opened the 
breast and lobes of the lungs, and there was no 
water; nor any in the diaphragm; but all was dry: 
and he remembered he then said, this woman could 
not be drowned, for if she had taken in water, the wa- 
ter must have rotted all the guts. As to any marks 
about her head and neck, it was impossible to disco- 
ver them, because they were so rotten. That he told 
Mrs. Stout and her son, if they imagined the skull to 
be injured, he would open the head, for if the scalp 
were never so rotten, if the skull had suffered any 
impression he should discover it; but they said they 
did not suspect a broken skull, and consequently 
he did not examine it. 
Jones. But all the other parts were sound T 
CoaUworth. Yes, sound, to a miracle; for I did 
not imagine we could find them so. 

Cowpei: I think where the coroner's inquest have 
viewed the body, and the relations have been heard, 
and the body buried, it ought not to be stirred again 
for any private inspection of parties that intend t» 
make themselves prosecutors, but if it be taken up, 
it ought to be done by some legal authority, otherwise 
a man may be easily trepanned; they might, after 
the coroner's view, break the skull into a hundred 
pieces. This was a private view, and, if they intend- 
ed to prosecute me upon this evidence, they ought 
to have given notice, that we might have had some 
surgeons among them to superintend their proceed- 
ings; and, therefore, with submission, this ought not 
to be given in evidence. 



MEDICAL MEN. 175 

Bar. Hatsel. If they did take up tbc body without 
notice, why should not Ihat be evidence? 

Cowper. Had you a melius inquirendum, or any 
lawful warrant, for making this inspection ? 

Coatsworth. No, there was not. 

Bar. Hatiel. Suppose they did an ill thing, in tak- 
ing up the body without some order; though I know 
no more ill in taking up that than another body; but, 
however, is that any reason we should not hear this 
evidence ? 

Coatsworth. Mr. Camlin, Sir William Cowper's 
surgeon, was there. 

Mr. Dimsdale, sen. deposed, That he was at the 
opening of the body, and that they found it as sound 
as any flesh could be : that they searched the stomach 
and thorax, and found not one drop of water about 
it; and that he saw no manner of sign of conception 
iu the uterus. That they had, afterwards, a consul- 
tation to consider if she was drowned or not, and 
they were all of opinion she was not drowned, ex- 
cept Mr. Camlin, who desired he might be excused 
jiving his opinion whether she was drowned or not. 

Jones. Why did you believe she was not drowned? 

Dimsdale. Because we found no water in her, and 
if there had -been water in her it would have caused 
a fermentation, and that would have rotted her lungs 
and guts. 

Bar. Hatsel. Could you tell, so many weeks after, 
whether she was drowned or no? 

Dimsdale. Yes, for if she had been drowned, there 
had been some sign of water ; if there had been a pint 



176 MEDICINE AND 

of water, it would have rotted her lights and her guts ; 
that is done in a week's time by fermentation. 

Cowper. Is it possible, after six weeks time, there 
should be water in the thorax ? 

Dimsdale. I believe there may be some, for it can't 
get out after the body is dead, but by putrefaction, 
and there was no putrefaction ; but it was very firm 
and sound. 

Bar. Hatsel. What parts would you have putrified 
by the water ? 

Dimsdale. The lungs and bowels. 
Juryman. Was her navel started i 
Dimsdale. No ; I never saw such a body in my life. 
'Cowper. Did you ever see a body that was drown- 
ed, opened six weeks after? 

Dimsdale. No, but if a body be drowned a fort- 
night, the bowels w ill be so rotten there will be no 
coming near it; and I took particular notice, ami 
did not see one drop of water, the coffin was clos« 
and dry, and all parts of her sound, but the head and 
neck, and left arm. 
Jones. What do you take to be the cause of that • 
Dimsdale. I can't judge of that. 
John Dimsdale, jun, deposed, That the body was 
opened before he came, and they were drawing up 
an affidavit, that there was no water in it, which they 
desired him to sign, supposing he had seen it ; that 
then he went and looked into the body, and turned 
the intestines aside, and found no water in it ; but 
the head from the neck was very much putrified. 
Jones. What difference was there between tlw 



MEDICAL MEN. 177 

child that was drowned, (and you opened) and this 
body? 

Dimtdale. The child was extremely swelled in the 
body and stomach, and had abundance of water in it. 

Cowper. How long was it before the child was 
opened ? 

Dimsdale. It was drowned in the afternoon, and 
opened the next morning. 

Dr. Robert Dimsdale deposed, That he came, 
with his brother, after the body was opened, and tfcey 
were setting their hands to a paper, and desired them 
to set their hands, and that, thereupon, they went and 
opened the body again, and they did not find a drop 
of water, cither in the thorax or abdomen. 

Bar. Hatsel. Could you expect to find it six weeks 
after? 

Dr. Dimtdale. We should have expected that or ft 
putrefaction ; but we found no put re I action, cither ill 
the bowels or intestines, but only upon her head and 
shoulders, and one arm. 

Cowper. Pray, by what passage does the water go 
into the thorax ? 

Dr. Dimsdale. 'Twiil be difficult for me to describe 
the manner here, but we should have found some in 
the stomach and intestines. 

Cowper. Pray, sir, how should it go into the tho- 
rax? 

Dr. Dimsdale. By the lymphaducl, if carried by 
any means. 

Cewper. Can water pass into the body after it it 
dead? 

VOL. II. N 



178 MEDICINE AND 

Dr. Dimsdale. No, for all parts are closed and 
contracted j but we opened the abdomen of the child 
that was drowned, and found in the several cavities 
abundance of water. 

Cowper. If a dead body be put into the water, will 
not the water come into the wind-pipe ? 

Dr. Dimsdale. I question whether it will or no. 

Cowper. Did not you give some certificate, con- 
cerning the death of this gentlewoman, before jou 
saw the body ? 

Dr. Dimsdale. No, I did not. 

Cowper. Was not you angry with Camlin, becauso 
he would not join with you ; and told him you was a 
graduate physician .' 

Dr. Dimsdale. Yes, we had some words about it. 

Dr. Coatsworth deposed, That it was his opinion, 
that every body that is drowned, is suffocated by 
water passing down the wind-pipe into the luDgs, 
upon respiration ; and, at the same time, the water 
pressing upon the gullet, there will be a necessity of 
swallowing a great deal into the stomach : that he 
had been near drowning himself, and was forced to 
swallow a great quantity of water. If a person was 
drowned, and taken out immediately, as soon as 
the suffocation was effected, he should not wonder 
if there was but a little water in the stomach and 
guts ; but if it lay in the water several hours, it must 
be strange if the belly was not full of water ; though 
he could not say it was impossible to be other- 
wise. 

Cowper. But you struggled to save yourself from 
drowning. 



MEDICAL MEN. \19 

Dr. Coatsworth. I did so : I have seen several 
persons that have been drowned, and lain several 
days, until, by a fermentation, they have been raised ; 
but I never made observations on persons who had 
been drowned about six hours. 

Dr. Naylor said, He was of opinion, if a body was 
drowned it would have a quantity of water in it; and 
if there was no water in the body, he should believe 
the person was dead before it was put into the water. 

Cowper. Was not you a constant voter against the 
interest of our family, in this corporation? 

Dr. Naylor. I never came to give a vote, but Sir 
William Cowper, or his son, opposed it, and said, 1 
had no right to vote. 

Cowper. The Dimsdales are of the same party? I 
would have asked them this question. 

Bar. Hatsel. It is not material, as they are wit- 
nesses. 

Babivgton, a surgeon, said, He was of opinion too, 
that persons who are drowned, whether by design or 
accident, would have water in them, and sink as 
soon as they are drowned, and don't rise so soon as 
this gentlewoman did. That he had a patient wbo 
was half an hour under water, and lived several hours 
afterwards; and, in that time, discharged a great 
quantity of water. 

Cowper. Did the woman you speak of go into the 
water voluntarily, or fall in by accident? 

Babinglon. By accident; but I don't believe that 
alters the case. 

Dr. Burnet delivered his opinion, That if a person 
falls into the water by accident, or throws himself in, 
N 2 



180 " MEDICINE AND 

the body will receive water as long as it is alive; but 
after all endeavours for respiration were over, he 
thought no water could come in, for that all the parts 
were closed. 

Mr. Jones. Do they swim or sink ? 

Dr. Burnet. They sink: I never saw a person 
drowned taken up without water; but I have seen 
several full of water. 

Dr. Woodhouse was of opinion, That where a per- 
son is suffocated by water, he must have a great deal 
of water in his stomach, and some in his lungs ; that 
he had opened a child that had a great quantity of 
water in it, and some in the throat. 

Cowper. Which way can it pass into the thorax ? 

Dr. Woodfiovse. While a person is struggling for 

respiration, there may be a relaxation of and the 

person must suck in water as well as air ; and some 
water may get into the wind-pipe, and so into the 
lungs. 

Cowper. Is there a passage from the lungs to the 
thorax? 

Dr. Woodhouse. The wind-pipe is the conveyance 
to the lungs, the lungs lie in the thorax, and the 
person, in respiration, takes down some water there, 
though the greater quantity will be in Ihe stomach. 

Bar.Hatsel. Will the inwards putrify in a little 
time? 

Dr. Woodhouse. If water gets into the stomach, or 
wherever it is, it will putrify very soon. 

Dr. Hans Shane delivered it as his opinion, That 
a great quantity of water, swallowed by the gullet 
into the stomach, would not suffocate or drown a 



MEDICAL MEN. 181 

person; but he had observed a few spoonfuls, going 
into the windpipe, choak a person. And he believed, 
whether a person came dead or alive into the water, 
some quantity would get into the windpipe; but he 
thought, without force, little would go into the sto- 
mach after death. For if it should, swallowing was 
necessary; which, after death, could not be done. 

Bar. Hatsel. But if water had been in the body, 
would it not have [nitrified the parts, after it had lain 
six weeks? 

Dr. Shane. I'm apt to think it would have putri- 
fied the stomach less than the lungs ; because the 
stomach is contrived for receiving liquids ; whereas 
the lungs are only for receiving air. They being of 
a spongy nature, the water might sink more into 
them, than into the stomach ; but I believe it would 
putrify them too, after some time. When a body 
is buried, the fermentation will be greater or lesser, 
according to the depth of the grave, the difference of 
the weather and soil, and the several kinds of meats 
and liquids in the stomach. And, no doubt, but 
there will be a fermentation, more or less, according 
as the air comes to the body ; but where the air is 
wholly shut out, it may be otherwise. And this is, 
at present, supposed to be the ancient way of em- 
balming ; and is supposed to be, in a great measure, 
owing to the closeness of the coffin. 

Cowper. Is it possible for any water to pass into 
the thorax ? 

Dr. Sloane. It is hardly possible any should go from 
the windpipe into the cavity of the thorax, without 
jjieat violence; for there is a membrane that covers 



182 MEDICINE AND 

the outside of the lungs, and will hinder the water 
passing through it, into any part without them. 

Cowper. Do you think it possible to find water in 
a drowned body, after six weeks time ? 

Dr. Sloane. I am apt to think, if there was any 
quantity in the lungs, the spunginess of them would 
suck up some part of it. And as to the stomach, if 
there was any great fermentation, 'twas likely a great 
part of it would rise up in steams and vapours, and 
w ould go off that way. 

Dr. Garth said, He agreed with Mr. Coatsworth, 
and the rest of the king's witnesses, as to Mrs. Stout's 
not being with child ; but he could not conclude 
with them that she was murdered ; either because 
they found no great quantity of water in her; or, be- 
cause her head was mortified, and not her lungs and 
bowels ; and was of opinion, that water did not has- 
ten putrefaction. And as to the putrefaction of the 
head, it might happen from a stoppage of the refluent 
blood; which is staid in a great quantity, through 
the suffocation in the water ; or from the nearness of 
the brain, which is observed to mortify first. 

That, as to the floating of the body, he held it im- 
possible the body should have floated unless it had 
rested or been entangled among the stakes. For that 
all dead bodies, he believed, would fall to the bottom, 
unless they were prevented by some extraordinary 
tumour. And as the witnesses agreed she was found 
upon her side, it was as hard to conceive she should 
float so, as that a deal-board should float edgeways: 
and therefore he thought it plain she was entangled. 

That he believed, when she threw herself in, sha 



MEDICAL MEN. 183 

might not struggle to save her life; and, conse- 
quently, not sup up much water. For there was 
no diiect passage into the stomach, but by the gul- 
let ; which is contracted or pursed up by a muscle, 
in the nature of a sphincter. 

Bar. Hatsel. What do you say to what Dr. Sloane 
said, that water in the body will putrify it ? 

Dr. Garth. I say not; for in some places they keep 
flesh from corrupting by preserving it in water; and 
it is well known, it will putrify less so, than when 
exposed to air. 

Bar. Hatsel. What do you say to what the sea- 
men said, that those who die at sea, and are thrown 
over-board, won't sink without a weight tied to 
them ? 

Dr. Garth. The seamen are a superstitious peo- 
ple : they fancy, that whistling at sea will occasion 
a tempest. We have tried some experiments on 
other dead animals, since we came hither ; and they 
certainly sink. And there is reason to suspect the 
seaman's evidence; for he said, sixty pound weight 
was allowed to sink a dead body, when six or seven 
pound would do as well. But the design of tying 
weights to their dead bodies is, to prevent their float- 
ing afterwards. 

Cowper. Could any quantity of water enter the 
cavity of the thorax ? 

Dr. Garth. It is impossible there should, until the 
lungs are quite rotten; there is no way but by the 
lungs, and they are invested with so strong a mem- 
brane, that we cannot force breath with our blow- 
pipes through it. 



164 MEDICINE AND 

Dr. Morley said, He was of opinion, that there 
was no necessity a person drowned should have a 
great quantity of water in him ; that two ounces of 
water would drown a man as well as two tun : that 
they drowned a dog the last night, and found not a 
spoonful of water in his stomach, and about two 
ounces in his lungs; that they drowned another, 
and he did not float, but sunk to the bottom ; and 
when they opened him they found much the same 
quantity of water in his lungs, and hardly any in the 
stomach ; that both frothed at nose and mouth ; and 
he thought if bodies new killed swim, it was by acci- 
dent; and the reason that bodies swim afterwards 
was, because, by putrefaction, they rarify and grow 
lighter. 

Cowper. Is it possible to know, six weeks after, 
if a person was drowned ? 

Dr. Morley. I think it morally impossible. 

Cowper. Can there be any water in the thorax? 

Dr. Morley. By an imposthume, or violence to 
nature, possibly, not otherwise. 

Dr. Wollaston said, He was of opinion, it was 
impossible to know whether a person was drowned 
six weeks after ; that had there been never so much 
water in the body it must have forced its way out ; 
that there was nothing to hinder its working out 
when it ferments, as it always does: that about 
three years since, he saw two men that were drowned 
out of the same boat, and taken up the next day; 
one of them was prodigiously swelled and black in 
the face, the other not in the least swelled or disco- 
loured, but lank as ever he was in his life, and not 



MEDICAL MEN. 185 

the least water in him ; except a watery froth at his 
mouth and nostrils. 

Mr. Jones. Did you see the bodies taken out of 
the water ? 

Dr. Wollaston. No, but I enquired, and to the 
best of my remembrance, it was the same day. 

Bar. Hatsel. What do you think of a person's 
being drowned without taking in any water ? 

Dr. Wollaston. What is taken in is chiefly at the 
surface of the water, when they open their mouths 
for breath the water rushes in, and they drink it 
down to keep it from their lungs ; but when the 
head is quite under water, I don't think it possible 
for any great quantity to get down into the stomach, 
because it being breath they open for, the very first 
water they take in would of necessity fill the lungs; 
and when the breath is stopped, 1 don't see how they 
can swallow. 

Dr. Gilstrop declared, He did not think any judg- 
ment could be made of persons being drowned six 
weeks after : that no water could go into the thorax 
till the lungs be putrified, and that there was not a 
greater quantity of water necessary to drown a man, 
than would hinder respiration. 

Mr. William Cowper declared, He was a stranger 
to Mr. Cowper, the prisoner, though of the same 
name : he said, that in this case, it was not to be 
expected that any more than froth would issue out 
of the mouth of the deceased; but had she been 
thrown into the water, and made ber utmost efforts 
to have saved herself, and been oflen buoyed up to 
the top of the water, she would have swallowed a 



186 MEDICINE AND 

considerable quantity before she had been drowned ; 
and if her head had been inclined downwards, it 
might have been expected to flow from her; but 
when the head of an animal was under water, the 
first time it was obliged to inspire (or draw in the 
air) the water would necessarily flow into its lungs, 
and that the dimension of the wind-pipe and its 
branches, not amounting to three inches square, 
would not contain above three ounces of water, and 
consequently a greater quantity was not necessary 
to choak a person : that he had caused three dogs 
to be drowned, and there was not more than three 
ounces of water in their lungs, and none in their 
stomachs ; and that it was ridiculous to expect 
water in the cavity of the thorax, unless the lungs 
had suffered some appostumation. 

Cowper. I think it a proper time to observe, that 
though the king's witnesses say they believe she was 
not drowned, they have not pretended to say, how 
she died otherwise. 

Bar. Ilatsel. That's very true. 

Dr. Crell said, That Ambrose Parry, chief surgeon 
to Francis I. was of opinion, that the certain si:vn 
of a man's being drowned was, an appearance of 
froth about his nostrils and mouth. 

Mr. Harriot deposed, That when he was a surgeon 
in the fleet, he observed, when they threw men over- 
board that were killed, some of them swam, and 
some sunk. 

Bar. Hatsel. When a dead body is thrown over^ 
board, does it sink or swim ? 



MEDICAL MEtf. 187 

Mr. Harriot. I always observed they sunk when 
we were in the channel. 

Mr. Bartlet deposed, He had been in several en- 
gagements, and never saw any of them swim upon 
the surface of the water. 

Dr. Camliti deposed, That the coroner desired 
Mr. Dinisdale and himself to take notice of the 
marks upon the neck and breast of the deceased, 
and that they viewed the body, and perceived 
a mark under her left ear, and a settlement of 
blood upon her breast, and another upon her arm ; 
and when they returned to the jury, Mr. Dims- 
dale spoke for them both, and said, it was a stag- 
nation that did commonly happen to drowned peo- 
ple; and lhat was also the deponent's opinion. That 
the deponent was also present when a child, of 
eleven or twelve years old, who was drowned near 
the same place, a little time after, was taken up, and 
Ihere were greater signs of the stagnation of blood 
fin the body of this child than on the body of Mrs. 
Stout; the child's face was black and discoloured. 

Mr. Cowper was acquitted. 

ZACUTUS. 

This eminent Portuguese physician was 
born at Lisbon, and called by some Lusitaaus. 
He studied philosophy and medicine at Sala- 
manca and Coimbra, and took his degree as 
doctor in 1594, at Saguntuni, now called Mur- 
viedro, a celebrated university of Spain. After 
this, he practised physic at Lisbon, till 1624, 



188 MEDICINE AND 

when, by an edict of Philip the Fourth, who 
governed Spain with a high hand, the whole 
race of Jews were interdicted the kingdom. 
Zacutus, being a Jew, betook himself to 
the low countries, and practised chiefly at 
Amsterdam and the Hague, at the former of 
which places he died, in 1641. His works, 
written in Latin, were printed at Lyons, two 
volumes, folio. Before the second is placed 
what he calls " Introitus ad Pranius," wherein 
he sets forth the qualities of a physician, moral 
as well as practical, and shews, not only what 
are the qualifications of a good physician, but, 
also, what are the duties of a good man. 

LETTSOM AND BRODUM. 

In 1806, Dr. Lettsom determined to blow up 
the quacks, and he prevailed on Phillips, the 
proprietor of the " Medical Journal," to allow 
him to insert, in that work, an anonymous ar- 
ticle, per number, on each of the advertising 
quacks of the country. Lettsom began with 
Brodum, proprietor of the Nervous Cordial, 
and other furiously advertised preparations, 
and, without ceremony, charged him with kill- 
ing thousands by their indiscriminate use; and, 
to undermine Brodum, stated that he had been 
a shoe-black at Copenhagen, a Jew-vender of 
oranges, &c; finally, footman to a mounte- 



MEDICAL MEN. 189 

bank. All this might be partly true, but it 
could not be legally proved, or justified by evi- 
dence in a court of law. Brodum, to whom 
the costs of a suit were of no importance, set 
his attorney to work, and Phillips, the printer, 
and three or four venders, were served with 
actions for 5000/. damages. Phillips called ou 
Lettsom, and the whole College, one by one, 
to enable him to justify, but in vain; for not 
one could prove that Brodum had killed even 
a single swallower of his nostrums. The 
lawyers held consultations, and the ingenious 
Garrow was anxious to get his brother-in-law, 
Lettsom, out of the scrape. In the mean time 
Brodum's attorney pressed for the proceedings. 
At length, the Editor of a newspaper stept be- 
tween Phillips and Brodum, who agreed to 
withdraw his actions and submit to the costs, 
provided the author was given up; but, if not, 
then he expected all expenses to be paid with- 
out demur; that the author should white-wash 
him in the next Journal, under the same signa- 
ture, and further, that Phillips and the news- 
paper Editor should dine with him. Lettsom 
gladly paid the two attorneys' bills, amounting 
to 390/., Phillips had a splendid dinner, and the 
next Medical Journal contained a high eulogium 
on the talents and virtues of Dr. Brodum! Of 
tours*, Lettsom left the quacks to themselves. 



190 MEDICINE AND 



DANIEL TURNER. 

We learn the state of Surgery in 1703, by 
" A Letter to Charles Bernard, Esq, on the 
present state of Chirurgery," written by Tur- 
ner, in which he says, " I can't persuade my- 
self, but that the art of chirurgery is at this 
time in a more flourishing state than ever, and 
am inclined to believe that the city of London 
can produce a greater number of men eminent 
iii that profession than any other in the world." 

THE TWO MORTARS. 

A young sprig of Esculapius, who had just 
made his debut in the shop of a fashionable apo- 
thecary, was struck, on the first day of his ap- 
prenticeship, by the discordant and indeed very 
dissimilar noise incessantly kept up by two mor- 
tars, or rather the pestles in the hands of their 
respective automata. The thumps of one resem- 
bled those conferred by a vigorous paviour on 
the stones in the street; the other, that of a 
silver bell, which, in Catholic countries, an- 
nounces the Host. After some consideration, 
he ventured to inquire the reason of a dispenser 
of the blessings of physic, of somewhat longer 
standing than himself, by whom he was in- 
formed, that in the larger metallic mortar were 
prepared the medicines for the poorer patients, 



MEDICAL MEN. 191 

whose pay was uncertain ; and that the mono- 
tonous tones emitted by it, being translated 
into English, were a perpetual repetition of 
" Die and be d — d, Die and be d — d ;" while 
the nice little glass mortar and pestle were 
used for the exclusive benefit of the rich and 
liberal patients, as might be easily gathered 
from his own expressions, • Linger and live, 
Linger and live." Probably the youngster never 
received, in the course of his professional stu- 
dies, a more wholesome lesson, or one from 
which he derived more profit. 

WINSLOW. 

The science of surgery, but more particu- 
larly that of anatomy, is greatly indebted to 
Winslow for many new lights, the result of 
continued research and acute observation. He 
was thus enabled to find out the source of un- 
common diseases, and apply successful reme- 
dies. His first treatise, on individual parts of 
the human body, procured him great honor, 
abroad as well as at home. It contained a 
great number of discoveries, which alone would 
have been sufficient to rank him among the 
foremost of the learned. He took a survey of 
the whole system of the human body, and col- 
lected into one point all the experience and 
knowledge which he had acquired of every 



192 MEDICINE AND 

individual part, their relation to each other, 
and their effects individually and generally. 
Of all this he published an anatomical explana- 
tion, which was regarded as the completest 
and best work at that time known. This trea- 
tise was received with great avidity, and ren- 
dered the author's name so celebrated, that 
when the physicians at Paris rebuilt their 
anatomical theatre, Winslow was solicited to 
deliver lectures there. The faculty wishing to 
attract attention to the theatre, considered it 
a high honor thus publicly to exhibit a man 
who was esteemed the most celebrated anato- 
mist of the age. 

Winslow was born at Odense, in Funen, 
and his father, a clergyman, intended him for 
the church. He had scarcely attained the 
necessary age before a living was offered to 
him, where he might have passed his life at 
ease; but a close intimacy having commenced 
between him and a young student in physic, 
remarkable for his assiduity, he was induced 
to attach himself to that science. 

Winslow, on resolving to become a surgeon, 
laid the foundation of his future knowledge in 
his own country ; be afterwards went to France, 
where that science flourished. He received 
some trifling support from Denmark; but as 
soon as this ceased, his diligence and erudition 



MEDICAL MEN. 193 

paved the way, step by step, to those posts 
of honor which he ultimately rilled. 

It ought to be remarked, that some years 
before Winslow became so celebrated, Streno- 
nius, a gentleman of the same family, and a 
native of Copenhagen, acquired nearly as great 
a name by equal diligence in the same sci- 
ences. He also made discoveries in anatomy, 
and probably would have left less for Wins- 
low to make known, had he continued his 
anatomical researches; but he changed his 
studies. Winslow became an anatomist from 
being a divine, and Strenonius a divine from 
being an anatomist. 

CASE OF LIGATURE OF THE ABTERIA 
1NNOMINATA. . 

This herculean and almost incredible opera- 
tion was performed by Dr. Mott, at the New- 
York hospital. — The patient fell by accident 
upon his arm and shoulder, in consequence 
of which a violent pain and swelling in his 
right shoulder followed, and soon after a 
slight pulsation was detected under the cla- 
vicle. At length he felt a pain as if some- 
thing had rent ; the tumefaction immediately 
increased to a great size, and the pulsations 
became more distinct, particularly on the 
inferior side of the clavicle. He became 

VOL. it. o 



194 MEDICINE AND 

very feeble, and had a violent cough. On ihe 
7th of May, Dr. Mott called in Doctors Post, 
Kissam, and Stevens, when it was agreed to tie 
the subclavian artery, and if it was found af- 
fected, to put a ligature on the common trunk. 
On the 11th, the operation was proceeded with, 
the patient having previously taken seventy 
drops of Tinct. Opii. Two incisions were made, 
one in the direction of the clavicle, and the 
other along the sterno-cleido-mastoideus. The 
carotid was laid bare, and traced towards the 
subclavian, which was found so diseased, that 
they had no alternative but to tie the innomi- 
nata. They accordingly carried the incisions 
deeper, and separating the recurrent and the 
phrenic nerves, they came to the division, and 
passed the ligature with a curved needle, about 
half-an-inch higher. The parts were then 
brought together by suture, and the wound 
then bandaged. Three arteries only were 
divided — a branch of the internal mammary, 
and two which arose from the inferior and 
superior thyroid. He lost about three ounces 
of blood only. 

Immediately after the operation, the patient 
felt quite well — pulse 60 — temperature of the 
arm, nearly the same as the other — respiration 
was unchanged. From this period to the twenty- 
second day, he continued to improve, the 



MEDICAL MEN. 195 

suppuration went on well, the ligatures came 
away without accident, and the pulse, which 
had risen to 120, was reduced by venesec- 
tion to its natural standard, the cough was 
disappearing, cicatrization was going on pro- 
perly, and the swelling becoming gradually 
less. He was in high spirits, and so far 
recovered, that he walked daily in the garden 
of the hospital. Suddenly, however, on the 
24th day, hemorrhage took place; and, though 
it was seon restrained, and there was little loss 
of blood, it recurred twice in the next two 
days, respiration became painful, and the 
patient died on the 26th day. 

Eighteen hours after death, the wound was 
black and foetid- No trace of inflammation was 
discovered either in the arch of the aorta, the 
origin of the arteria innominata, or in the lungs. 
The internal membrane of the innominata was 
smooth and soft, and its parietes were so thick, 
that there was only room for a crow-quill to 
pass. The subclavian artery opened into the 
tumour; the carotid was filled with coagulated 
blood. The arteries of the arm were healthy. 
The clavicle was carious, and almost separated 
in the middle. Death was evidently caused by 
extensive suppuration. 



o 2 



196 MEDICINE AND 

DR. BARKER. 

" Dr. Barker, being by education a dissenter, 
studied physic at Leyden ; on his return to 
this country, he was introduced to us by Dyer, 
having been a fellow-student with him, and 
with Akenside, Askew, Munckly, Mr. Dyson 
of the House of Commons, and others, few 
of whom are now living. From the con- 
versation of these persons, he learned the prin- 
ciples of Lord Shaftsbury's philosophy, and 
became, as most of them were, a favourer 
of his notions, and an acute reasoner on the 
subject of ethics. He was an excellent clas- 
sical scholar, a deep metaphysician, and had 
enriched his fancy by reading the Italian poets; 
but he was a thoughtless young man, and in 
dress and appearance so slovenly, that he be- 
came the jest of all his companions. Physi- 
cians, in his time, were accustomed to be 
full dressed ; and in his garb of a full 
suit, a brown tie-wig with a knot over one 
shoulder, a long yellow-hilted sword, and his 
hat under his arm, he was a caricature. In 
his religious principles he professed himself 
an unitarian, for which Johnson so often 
snubbed him, that his^Kisits* to us became daily 
less frequent. After such a description, it is 
needless to add, that Barker did not succeed 



MEDICAL MEN. 107 

iii Ins profession. Upon his leaving us, he 
practised at Trowbridge ; but, at the end of two 
years, returned to London, and became libra- 
rian to the College of Physicians, in the room 
of Edwards, the ornithologist; for some misbe- 
haviour, however, he was displaced, and died in 
obscurity." — (Hawkins's Life of Dr. Johnson.) 

PROFESSIONAL SECRECY REWARDED. 

Tt is said that Dr. Mead owed his rise in 
life from being called to a certain intoxicated 
Duchess at midnight. The doctor, also, was by 
no means reputed for the sobriety of his habits, 
and being in a similar situation to that of his 
patient, while he was in the act of feeling her 
grace's pulse, slipped his foot; on which he im- 
mediately ejaculated, " drunk, by G — d," in 
allusion to himself. The Duchess imagining he 
had found out her complaint, which she strove 
by every means in her power to conceal, whis- 
pered to him, that if he kept it a secret, she 
would recommend him. The secret was kept, 
she was as good as her word, and Mead made 
his fortune. 

WESLEY'S CURE FOR RUPTURE. 
This eminent divine prescribes, in his primi- 
tive physic, the following absurdity for rupture 
in children. " Boil," says he " a spoonful of 



198 MEDICINE AND 

egg-shells, dried in an oven, and powdered, in a 
pint of milk, and feed the child constantly with 
bread boiled in this milk." 

ANTHONY STARK, M. D. 

Few medical men have acted as fairly by 
their patients as Dr. Stark ; who, before he 
recommended the use of the meadow-saffron 
root, tried it upon himself in a crude state, 
until he was reduced to the brink of the grave. 
Dr. Stark should, however, be excepted, who 
undertook some experiments on diet, and pro- 
secuted them with such imprudent zeal, that 
they proved fatal to him, in his twenty-ninth 
year. 

JOSHUA WARD, 

Better known by the name of Spot Ward, 
from one side of his face being marked with 
a claret-coloured ncevus maternus, is alluded to 
in the following couplet: 

Of late, withoat the least pretence to skill, 
Ward's grown a fam'd physician by a pill. 

General Churchill was the primary puffer of 
Ward's pill at court; and Lord Chief Baron 
Reynolds soon after published " its miraculous 
effects on a maid-servant," according to some 



MEDICAL MEN. 19i) 

doggrel verses of Sir William Brown, addressed 
to " Dr. Ward, a quack of merry memory," 
under the title of " The Pill Plot; or The 
Daily Courant's miraculous Discovery, upon 
the ever-memorable 28th day of November, 
1734. For, from the Doctor himself being a 
Papist, and distributing his pills to the poor 
gratis, by the hands of the Lady Gage, also a 
Papist, the pill must be, beyoud all doubt, a 
deep-laid plot to introduce Popery." 

The fact that medicines, once so celebrated, 
are now almost forgotten, has induced some 
to question their title to the reputation which 
they obtained. When we recollect, however, 
the basis of these preparations, and the wonder- 
working operations of chemistry upon it, it 
would be absurd to doubt their active power ; 
besides which, Ward, though his medical edu- 
cation was not conformable 1o College routine, 
possessed considerable natural powers, with an 
abundant share of acuteness and common sense. 

DR. M'GHIE, 

A Scotchman by birth, was educated in one 
of the Universities of that country, for the 
profession of Physic. In the rebellion of 1745, 
he, with a party of young men who as volun- 
teers had associated on the side of government, 
bore arms, and was engaged in the skirmish at 



200 MEDICINE AND 

Falkirk, which he ever spoke of as an ill-con- 
ducted business. When matters had become 
motfe quiet in Scotland, he took a doctor's 
degree and came to London, where, trusting to 
the friendship of his countrymen, he hoped to 
succeed in practice ; but the town was over- 
stocked with Scotch Physicians, and he met 
with little encouragement; though by the fa- 
vour of Dr. Benjamin Avery, the Treasurer of 
Guy's Hospital, who had been a dissenting 
teacher, and was then at the head of that in- 
terest, he was appointed one of the Physi- 
cians of that charity. He was a learned, inge- 
nious, and modest man ; and one of those few 
of his country whom Johnson could endure. 
To say the truth, he treated him with great civi- 
lity, and may almost be said to have loved him. 
He inherited a patrimony too small for his sub- 
sistence, and failing in the hope of getting for- 
ward in his profession, he died of a broken 
heart, and was buried by a contribution of his 
friends. 

DR. ARBUTHNOT 
Was a man of consummate probity, integrity, 
and sweetness of temper: he had infinitely 
more learning than Pope or Swift, and as much 
wit and humour as either of them. He was an 
excellent mathematician and physician, of 
which his Letter on the Usefulness of Mathe- 



MEDICAL MEN. 201 

malical Learning, and his Treatise on Air and 
Aliment, are sufficient proofs. His Tables of 
Ancient Coins, Weights and Measures, are the 
works of a man intimately acquainted with 
ancient history and literature, and are enliven- 
ed with many curious and interesting particu- 
lars of the manner and ways of living of the 
ancienfcs. The History of John Bull, the best 
part of the Memoirs of Scriblerus ; (he Art of 
Political Lying; the Freeholder's Catechism; It 
cannot Rain but it Pours, &c. abound in strokes 
of the most exquisite humour. It is known 
that he gave numberless hints to Swift, and 
Pope, and Gay, to which the most striking parts 
of their works are indebted. He was so neg- 
lectful of his writings, that his children tore his 
manuscripts, and made paper kites of them. 
Few letters in the English language are so inter- 
esting, or contain so much of christian resig- 
nation and calmness of mind, as one that he 
wrote to Swift a little before his death. He fre- 
quently, and ably, and warmly, in many conver- 
sations, defended the cause of revelation against 
the attacks of Bolingbroke and Chesterfield. 

ODIUM MEDICORUM. 

Those who engage keenly in medical disputes 
are generally men 

" Whose souls Ihe furies steel'd, 
And curs'd with hearts unknowing how to yield." 



202 MEDICINE AND 

The true odium medicorum approaches 
nearer than any thing else known in human na- 
ture, to the genuine odium theologicum. It has 
even been doubted by competent judges which 
of the two is worse; for those Physicians have 
never yet carried the joke so far as to burn 
alive their adversaries whom they could not 
convert, as Dominican monks and others used 
to do very successfully to their obstinate oppo- 
nents, yet there is reason to suspect, that this 
reserve and delicacy, on the part of our Faculty, 
has proceeded more from want of power, than 
from any want of good-will to the work. It is cer- 
tain, at least, that at one time, about two hun- 
dred and fifty years ago, in Spain and Portu- 
gal, they fairly tried it, and that they had well 
nigh succeeded in their attempt. 

There can be no doubt, that the inveterate 
rancour of medical men, in all their profession- 
al disputes, is one of the bad effects of " the 
fruit of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste 
brought death into the world, and all our woe," 
or of some degenerate bastard sort of it, which 
is every where to be met with ; and seems to 
produce effects almost as bad as the genuine 
poison. It is remarkable, that of the fruit of 
medical knowledge it is very easy to get a 
mouthful, and very difficult to get a belly-full, 
it being in such general request ; and still more 



MEDICAL MEN. 203 

remarkable, that the smallest portion of it, so 
small a portion as to elude all observation, 
often produces more violent effects than the 
largest quantity of it, that any person has hi- 
therto been able to procure for himself. In 
some constitutions, the effects of a small parti- 
cle of it are more ridiculous than dangerous, 
the patient only prattling foolishly, and acting 
absurdly a thousand ways, but not becoming 
mischievous or outrageous. In other constitu- 
tions, the effects of a small mouthful of that 
unlucky fruit are much more alarming than 
those of deadly night-shade or the strongest 
Scotch whiskey ; the patient not only talks, 
and writes, and acts absurdly, and sometimes 
outrageously, but quarrels implacably with all 
who differ from him in opinion, especially with 
his own professional brethren. 

Hence it is, that much more than ninety-nine 
parts in the hundred of all that has been writ- 
ten on the theory and practice of physic, for 
more than two thousand years, is absolutely 
useless, and worthy to be known but as a mat- 
ter of curiosity, or a miserable warning and 
example of the worst errors to which we are 
prone. A large proportion of those writings 
consists of controversies generally carried on 
with the bitterest animosity. Though I am 



204 MEDICINE AND 

not so well acquainted will) the particulars, I 
know in general that the same is true with res- 
pect to the writings on the theory and practice 
of surgery. — Gregory. 

DR. MONRO AND DR. BATTIE. 

Forty or fifty years ago, Dr. Battie, a 
physician accustomed to the care of mad pa- 
tients, published a book upon madness. Scarce- 
ly was it published, when Dr. Monro, (John 
Monro, senior, of Bethlehem Hospital,) who 
seems to have been much his superior in wit 
and talents, fell upon him, and gave him such 
an unmerciful drubbing as no mad doctor or 
mad patient ever got before. By the happiest 
application that ever was, or ever will be, made 
of a line of Horace — 

O major, tandem pacas, insane minore ! 

which he put on the title-page of his hook, he 
contrived to represent Battie as more mad than 
his own patients, and his (Monro's) flogging as 
only an admonition to him, to have mercy on 
those who are less mad than himself. Such a 
pamphlet was enough to drive a whole college 
of physicians mad. 



MEDICAL MEN. 205 

MINERAL WATERS. 

An amiable young lady, affected with de- 
jection of spirits, was ordered by her physi- 
cian to take the waters of Passey for six weeks, 
from which, however, she derived no benefit. 
The person who served her with the bottles of 
water, being one day in the shop of a wine and 
spirit merchant, who was laughing at the in- 
efficacy of the ferruginous waters, and said in 
the true spirit of his trade, that the young lady 
would derive more benefit from a proper dose 
of neat Geneva, he at last succeeded in per- 
suading the person to substitute a bottle of gin 
for the mineral water. The spirit was in due 
form put into a basin of warm water, and the 
quantity of half-a-pint carried to the lady by 
her waiting-maid. Owing to the precaution 
taken by the patient of holding her nose to 
avoid the smell of the water, the whole was 
swallowed without suspicion ; but the dose 
quickly manifested itself in the stomach. 
Symptoms of complete intoxication supervened, 
and free vomiting took place; but what is still 
more remarkable, (the fact is recorded, in p. 
150 of the Journale Encyclopedique,) that at 
the termination of this crisis the patient felt 
herself perfectly relieved from all her com- 
plaints, and had no farther occasion for a Phy- 
sician. 



206 MEDICINE AND 



THE ACME OF MEDICAL HONOURS. 

Iu the duchy of Wirtemberg the executioner 
is not considered infamous ; people eat, drink, 
and visit him. Each execution he performs, 
acquires him a title of honour ; and, when he 
has completed a certain number, he is digni- 
fied with the degree of Doctor of Physic. If it 
be true, that in every country good physicians 
are only to be made by killing men, still it is 
not by hanging them. It is certainly a pleasant 
fancy this, to obtain degrees in medicine by- 
hanging felons up by the neck, and breaking 
their bones upon the wheel ! 

PETER LOWE'S EPITAPH. 

All that is known of this author is from his 
works, which shew that he was born in Scot- 
land; that he practised twenty years in French 
Flanders ; and had been two years surgeon- 
major to a Spanish regiment at Paris, and had 
then followed the king of France (Henry IV.) 
his master, in his wars, six years. In the title- 
page of his book, entitled " A Discourse on the 
whole Art of Surgery," he calls himself " Doctor 
in the Faculty of Surgery at Paris, and Ordinary 
Surgeon to the King of France and Navarre." 
His book is dated Glasgow, Dec. 20th, 1612. 



MEDICAL MEN. 207 

Pennant, in his Tour to the Hebrides, (p. 134,) 
copies his Epitaph in the cathedral church of 
Glasgow, which conveys an amiable picture of 
his character, viz. 

Stay, passenger, and read this stone, 

For under it lies such a one, 

Who cured many while he liv'd; 

So gracious he no man griev'd, 

Yea, when his physick's force oft fail'd, 

His pleasant purpose then prevail'd, 

For of his God he got the grace, 

To live in mirth and eke in peace ; 

Heav'n has his soule, his corpse this stone; 

Sigh, passenger, and then begone. 

It bears date 1612, the same year in which 
he published his Discourse on Surgery. 



DISSECTION. 

Some of the most celebrated of the anatomi- 
cal theatres are decorated with inscriptions 
illustrative of the purposes to which they are 
dedicated. At Toulouse, for instance, one 
reads, 

Hie locus est ubi mors gaudet succurrere vitae. 

Over the school of Surgery at Paris, we read 
the following, from the pen of Santeuil. 

Ad caedes hominum prisca amphitheatra patebant, 
Ut discant longura vivere nostra patent. 



208 MEDICINE AND 

William Rondelet, a celebrated physi- 
cian of Montpelier, had a zeal quite outrageous 
for dissecting. It is asserted, that he dissected 
one of his own children to satisfy himself con- 
cerning the cause of its death. His pupil, 
Posthious, acquainted us, that Rondelet, while 
visiting his friend and colleague, Pontanns, who 
was dangerously ill, earnestly solicited him, 
that he would order in his will, that his, body- 
might be delivered to him for dissection. 

Riolan agitates the question, whether it 
be lawful to dissect living persons, for 
the purpose of promoting knowledge? and, 
what is more surprising, he concludes in 
the affirmative, that cases may occur in which 
this species of dissection may be justified. He 
endeavours to confirm his opinion by divers 
examples. Manners must have changed since 
that period ; for it is not probable that, at the 
present day, a surgeon could be found barba- 
rous enough to dissect a living human being. 
Such dissections were practised by the physi- 
cians of antiquity, and probably on criminals 
sentenced to death, as we find that Celsus 
reprobates the practice as cruel, barbarous, 
and horrid. 

The number of persons who have bequeathed 
their bodies, whole, or in part, for the bene- 
fit of posterity, is not so small as lUgbt be 



MEDICAL MEM. 209 

surmised. Vaugelas, in his last will, after hav- 
ing disposed of all his effects to pay his debts, 
adds, " But as certain creditors may remain 
unpaid, even after all my goods are disposed 
of, it is my last will that my body be sold to 
the Surgeons, on the most advantageous terms, 
and that the produce be applied to the liquida- 
tion of those debts for which I may be respon- 
sible; so that if I have not been able to render 
myself useful to society during myjife, I may 
be so, in some measure, after my death." 

A person filling a high public situation at 
Paris, a few years ago, left a similar legacy ; 
and the late Dr. Mounsey not only bequeathed 
his body for dissection, but left the operator a 
pecuniary gratuity. 

PERCIVAL POTT, 

The first surgeon of his day, and a scientific 
witer, was remarkable for the classic purity of 
his style, the scrupulous precision of his defini- 
tion, and the unerring closeness of his argument : 
he may be compared to Celsus, the works of 
each being elegant specimens of the language in 
which they wrote. 

" His life," says an enthusiastic admirer, " was 
a national blessing, his death a national loss; he 

VOL. II. p 



2H) MEDICINE AND 

enlarged the bounds of art, human malady 
shrunk before him.; he was eyes to the blind, 
and feet to the lame." 

He predominated, early in life, in a profession 
which has been said not to procure the members 
of it bread till they have no teeth to eat it ; 
particularly as a consulting surgeon, a post 
generally occupied by medical veterans. For 
fifty years he discharged, with fidelity and 
honour, the appointment of Surgeon and Lec- 
turer to a large hospital; and both as a profes- 
sional man, and a gentleman, he united powers 
to improve the rising generation by precept and 
example. 

JEAN PITAKD, 

Surgeon to St. Louis, Philippe le Hardi, and 
Philippi le Bel; from the last of these sovereigns 
he obtained an edict, dated November 1311, 
which commences in the following curious 
style: — " Le Souverain instruit des brigandages 
qui se commettoient dans le profession de la 
Chirurgie, deshonor6e par une foule dePatriciens 
qui sont qualifies de Meurtriers, de Volmrs, de 
Faux, Monnoyeurs, d' Alchimistes, de Fripons, 
dont les uns avoient merite la corde, les autres 
le Bannissement ; le Souverain, pour obvier a 
ces desordres, veut que dans la Ville et Vicointe 



MEDICAL MEN. 211 

de Paris aucun Chirurgien, soil homme, sott 
femme, n'ait le pouvoir, qu'il appelle dans la 
suite Licentia, de faire aucun acte de Chirur- 
gie, sans avoir ete au prealable examine & ap- 
prouve par des Maitres Chirurgiens — Junes 
appelles ou convoques a cet effet par Maitre 
Jean Pitarj>, Chirurgien de S.M. et du Clia- 
telet de Paris, ou ses successeurs." * 

^CHARLES PETERS 

Was remarkable for his skill in curing a 
disorder prevalent in the reign of the licen- 
tious Charles II. Taking advantage of the dis- 
soluteness of the times, he advertised a preven- 
tive pill, which, inspiring a delusive presump- 
tion, increased the number of his patients. It 
was an age of nostrums and specifics, from the 



* Translation. The sovereign, apprised of the rob- 
beries committed in the profession of Surgery, disgraced 
by a mob of plebeians qualified for murdsrers, thieves, 
coiners, alchymists, and rogues, wills, in order to do 
away with these disorders, that in the town and county of 
Paris, no surgeon, either man or woman, is authorised to 
do any Surgical act without, in the first instance, having 
been duly examined and approved of by Master Surgeons, 
swgm, called, or convoked for that purpose, by Master 
John Pitard, Surgeon to his Majesty, and of the Chaielet 
of Paris, or his successors. 

P2 



212 MEDICINE AND 

king to the cottager, and he acquired, in con- 
sequence, an ample fortune. 

' DR. WILLIAM CULLEN. 

Cullen was long an obscure medical prac- 
titioner, in a country village in Scotland, 
where he could neither acquire fame nor riches ; 
but it happened that, while he resided there, 
Archibald, Duke of Argyle, visited a gentleman 
in the neighbourhood. The duke dabbled in 
chemistry, and, indeed, had a more than ordinary 
knowledge of the subject: but, while on this 
visit, was much at a loss for want of a small 
chemical apparatus. His host, recollecting Mr. 
Cullen, invited him to dine, and introduced him 
to the duke as a person likely to supply his 
wants. An introduction to one of his grace's 
great political influence could not but be favour- 
able. A successful cure he afterwards per- 
formed on the Duke of Hamilton, completed 
his character. His first step, in 1746, was to 
the chemical chair in the University of Glas- 
gow. 

It has been said, that no profession affords so 
many opportunities of displaying the virtues of 
benevolence as the medical. Of these oppor- 
tunities no man, perhaps, ever availed himself 
oftener, or with a better grace. He never took 
fees of the clergy; who, in Scotland, can ill 



MEDICAL MEN. 213 

afford the pecuniary penalties of disease; the 
students were equally the objects of his consi- 
deration. Dr. Anderson, of Edinburgh, gives 
us a pleasant anecdote of the advantage once 
derived from Dr. Cullen's charitable disposition. 
A medical student, who attended a course of 
lectures given by one of the medical professors, 
but who never had attended Cullen's class, hap- 
pened to be seized with t he small-pox. At the 
beginning of the disorder he was sick and very 
uneasy, and naturally sent for his own pro- 
fessor, as a physician. The disease soon ter- 
minated favourably, and all danger had abated, 
when the young man surprised his friends by 
calling in the assistance of Dr. Cullen, for 
winch he said he had reasons, which they would 
approve of when they knew them. When 
quite recovered, he watched an opportunity 
when both the physicians were present, thanked 
Dr. Cullen for his attention, and offered him 
money. This the doctor (as the young wag 
foresaw) positively refused; He then offered it 
to the other, (his own professor) who for shame 
could not accept it; although it was never 
known that he had refused a fee when offered. 
The reason of his calling in Dr. Cullen was 
very apparent. 



214 MEDICINE AND 

SIR HANS SLOANE, BART. 

This eminent physician and naturalist, the 
founder of the British Museum, was a native of 
Ireland, (born in the year 1660). The early 
bent of his genius discovered itself towards the 
knowledge of nature, which was encouraged by 
a proper education. He chose physic for his 
profession ; and, in order to attain a perfect 
knowledge of its several branches, he repaired 
to London. Here he attended all the public 
lectures of anatomy, botany, and chemistry. 
His turn for natural history introduced him to 
the acquaintance of Boyle and Ray, whose 
friendship he carefully cultivated, by communi- 
cating to them every curious or useful observa- 
tion lie made. Having spent four years in 
London he went to Paris, and there attended 
the hospitals, heard the lectures of Tournefort 
the botanist, of Du Verney the anatomist, and 
other eminent masters. Having obtained letters 
of recommendation from Tournefort, he went to 
Montpelier, and was introduced by M. Chirac, 
then chancellor and professor of that univer- 
sity, to all the learned men of the province, but 
particularly to Mr. Magnol, who introduced him 
to an acquaintance with the spontaneous pro- 
ductions of nature in that happy climate, and 
taught him to class them in tdieir proper order. 



MEDICAL MEN. 215 

He spent a whole year in collecting plants in 
this place, aw! travelled through Languedoc 
with the same view. Tn 1684 he returned to 
London, with an intent to settle and follow his 
profession. 

He immediately transmitted to Mr. Ray a 
great variety of plants and seeds, which Ray has 
described, with proper acknowledgments, in his 
" Historia Plantarum." About this time he 
became acquainted with Sydenham, who took 
him into his house, and recommended him in 
the warmest manner to practice ; and shortly he 
was chosen a fellow of the Royal Society, and 
of the College of Physicians. But a prospect of 
making new discoveries, in natural productions, 
induced him to take a voyage to Jamaica, as 
physician to Christopher, Duke of Albemarle, 
then governor of that island. His whole stay 
at Jamaica was scarcely fifteen months, yet he 
brought together such a variety of plants as 
greatly surprised Mr. Ray, not thinking there 
had been so many to be found in both the 
Indies. He now applied himself closely to his 
profession, and became so eminent that he was 
chosen physician to Christ's Hospital, on the 
first vacancy. The money which he received 
from his appointment he applied to the 
relief of poor objects in the hospital, not 
being willing to enrich himself by the gains he 



216 MEDICINE AND 

made there. He was chosen secretary to the 
Royal Society in 1693, and immediately revived 
the publication of the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions," which had been omitted for some time ; 
he continued to be editor of them till 1712, and 
the volumes which were published in this pe- 
riod contain many pieces written by himself. 
As he had from his earliest days a strong 
appetite for natural knowledge, he had made a 
great collection of rarities, and enriched his 
cabinet with every thing that was curious in 
art or nature. But this received a great aug- 
mentation by a bequest of William Courten, 
esq. a gentleman who had employed all his time, 
and the greatest part of his fortune, in collect- 
ing curiosities. The sense which the public 
entertained of his merit is evidently shewn by 
the following honours conferred upon him : he 
was created a baronet by George I. ; chosen a 
foreign member of the Royal Academy at Paris; 
president of the Royal College of Physicians ; 
and president of the Royal Society, on the death 
of Sir Isaac Newton. 

After a short illness of three days, he died 
the 11th of January, 1752, in his ninety-first 
■vear. 



MEDICAL MEN. 217 

JOHN PARTRIDGE, 
A physician and astrologer of the seventeenth 
century, like many others of his day, as werl as 
at the present time, thought it no crime to take 
advantage of the weakness of mankind, and to 
procure wealth and reverence at the expense of 
folly. That he was a doctor, and a royal doctor, 
may be learned from his epitaph. 

Johannes Patridge, Astrologus, 

et Medicina Doctor ; 

Natus est apud, East Sheen, 

in Comitatu Surry, 

18 die Januarii, anno 1644, 

et Mortuus est Londini 

24 die Julie, anno 1715. 

Medicinam Fecit duobus Regibus 

Unique Reginse ; Carlo Scilicet secundo, 

Willielmo Tertio, Reginseque Mariae. 

Creatus Medicinae Doctor, 

Lugduni Batavorum. 

This exalted character, when he had learned 
to read, and a " little to write," was bound 
apprentice to a shoemaker, an occupation which 
he followed in Covent Garden so late as the 
year 1680, though two years afterwards, 1682, 
in his translation of " Mynsicht's Treasury of 
Physic," he is styled Physician to his Majesty. 

The works of Partridge were chiefly astro- 
logical, and would have passed into oblivion 
had not their author fallen under the lash of a 
celebrated wit, which will make the ridiculous 



218 MEDICINE AND 

part of his character remembered, when the resf 
of his personal history shall be forgotten. An 
almanac bears his name even to this day. 

CHEMISTRY. 
From the time of Boerhaave to the down- 
fall of the boasted principles of Becher and 
Stah!, numerous are the authors who have im- 
proved this science. Among the Germans are 
Newmann, Polt, Cramer, Spielman, De Born, 
Plenck, Scheele, and Gren. In Holland, Ingeu- 
houz and Van Mons. In France, Geoffrys, 
Remour, Du Hamel, Hellot, Roulle, Macquer, 
Baume, Lavoisier, Berthollet, Fourcroy, Sage, 
De Morveau. In Italy, Scopoli, Fontana ; and, 
in this country, Hales, Lewis, Priestly, Black, 
Higgins, Beddoes, Pearson, Cavendish, Davy, 
Aikins, Thompson, Wollaston, Cooper, Brande, 
Marcet, and Petty s. 

The object of chemistry is to ascertain the 
nature and properties of bodies, or to explain 
the intimate action of all natural substances on 
each other. The means by which these me- 
thods are principally acquired, are analysis and 
synthesis ; the former signifying the separation 
or decomposition of the constituent parts of a 
compound body — the latter, its formation or 
composition by the artificial reunion of its con- 
stituent principles. 

Every useful art being dependant on chemical 



MEDICAL MEN. 219 

science, its cultivation cannot be too strongly 
enforced, as the key of true knowledge and 
correct information. It is, indeed, that science 
which, of all others, tends to expand the mind. 
Its subjects include the whole creation ; and 
whatever contributes to the utility or ornament 
of life, falls within the scope of its investigation. 
To the contemplative mind, it affords a field for 
endless reflection and varied enquiry. It lifts the 
mind to that source whence all creation springs ; 
and, in tracing the infinite changes it is capable 
of producing as matter, it naturally leads to an 
attempt to trace the cause from which such 
changes are produced, and by which they are 
modified. Thus the existence of a superior 
power becomes warmly impressed upon the in- 
dividual engaged in its pursuit. Difficulties 
occur which the best-informed chemist cannot 
explain, and which he can alone retrace to an 
all-powerful and invisible hand, without whose 
interference he is bewildered in conjecture, and 
led into a maze of difficulties and perplexities. 
Every combination shews coiatrivance and de- 
sign, and to the person possessing a knowledge 
of chemistry, appears evidently the work of pre- 
conceived arrangement, aud not the effect of 
chance or uncertainty. Thus impressed, creation 
is viewed by him with an admiration superior to 
that of a casual observer. He discovers an over- 



220 MEDICINE AND 

ruling providence, and " sees through nature 
Nature's God." He traces in every part the 
wise and unseen hand of the Creator, endu- 
ing every atom with certain qualities peculiar 
and appropriated to itself, and these qualities 
capable of being altered, improved, and modified 
to the various uses and properties of life. But, 
when he descends into the particular branches 
into which the industry of man has divided this 
science, he finds his source of admiration 
still more complete. If he investigate the busi- 
ness of the manufacturer, he finds that this 
science is the very basis of his art; for k not 
only furnishes him with the articles with which 
he is to work, but it enables him to judge of 
their purity, to detect their adulterations, and 
to improve their quality. If, again, he enter 
into the province of the physician, how essential 
is this science to the principles and security of 
the healing art. A mixture of two articles 
which separately may be administered with 
safety, as, quicksilver and the muriatic acid, 
forms a powerful poison. Without, therefore, 
a knowledge of the effects of combinations, how 
dangerous a task does the physician undertake, 
and how. apt is he, in his desire to remove dis- 
ease, to do more injury to the human frame 
than the disease itself would produce. With 
chemistry his prescriptions may not only be 



MEDICAL MEN. 221 

nugatory, but, by improper combinations, be 
made the instrument of pain and death. Even 
the most active medicines may be rendered inert 
by union with other substances; and, aware of 
this, the physician ignorant of chemistry seldom 
ventures to prescribe active chemical prepara- 
tions, although the only remedies likely to prove 
beneficial. This is a subject which chemistry 
alone can teach and explain. Thus the most 
powerful mineral poisons, by the addition of 
substances termed sulphurets, are decomposed, 
and rendered innoxious; and vegetable poisons 
are much counteracted in their effects, by the 
power of acids. But the benefit of this science 
to the physician is not limited to a knowledge of 
the powers of remedies; it presents to him a sub- 
ject still more important, the investigation of the 
structure and animating principle of the human 
body, which he finds subject to the same che- 
mical laws with the organization of the creation. 
By investigating its economy he finds that the 
machine resembles a laboratory, in which is 
constantly going, in a variety of processes, some 
simple, others complicated, but all clearly de- 
pendant on chemical attraction. But the view 
which chemistry affords of the structnre ef ani- 
mals ought not to be confined t*o professional 
admiration and study. It ought to form a sub- 
ject for the research of every individual who 



222 



MliUIUIINli AND 



possesses the power of thought and reflection, 
who considers the purpose for which he is 
created, for " Dust we are, and to dust we 
must return," is the language of sacred 
writ, and this language cannot be properly 
understood without a knowledge of chemistry, 
shewing the products into which animal matter 
is reducible, and that earth constitutes the great 
basis of the whole. 

GAMES ADAPTED TO THE MEMBERS OF 
THE MEDICAL PROFESSION. 

The game of Chess was played at the siege 
of Troy, by Podalirius and Machaon, with Pal- 
medes, the inventor of it; still there are other 
games which bear a closer analogy to the ars 
Medendi. 

Draughts, from their extensive utility, need 
not be mentioned; they are certainly among 
the prima elemenla of the general practitioner. 

Push-pin manifestly tends to increase the 
tactus eruditus. — Dominos inculcate the neces- 
sity of the juxta-position of similar parts by due 
apposition, and give warning of the evil consor 
quences of a solution of continuity. They form 
an evidently sanative game. Nine-Pins and 
bowls, from their very form, like two-ounce 
phials and pills, are doubtless intended to do 
honour to medicine. 



MEDICAL MEN. 223 

The various games of cards seem, however, 
particularly designed for the use of medital 
practitioners, and may be called the microsm of 
medicine. In Whist, there is the necessity of 
cutting, which involves much chirurgical know- 
ledge ; and shuffling, which is useful in all the 
branches of the profession. The good player 
will rely more on tricks than on honours. The 
propriety of never omitting to call, is inculcated 
on the physician, while the maxim of returning 
your partner's lead, adumbrates that good un- 
derstanding between the Doctor and the Apo- 
thecary, which may be termed the holy alliance 
of London practice. Some practitioners have 
played well at Matrimony. Pope Joan con- 
veys a curious historical fact, and may thus 
increase the general knowledge of the student. 

There is a game mentioned by Rabelais, under 
the name of Flux, with which we are not ac- 
quainted, but which, no doubt, if investigated, 
would tend to throw light on cathartics. The 
same astute physician mentions the game of 
Pille ; but the word with him, (in French) is 
not takea in the sense of pilula, but in the im- 
perative of the verb piller, to rob, strip, or 
pillage. In English it might be called bill, and 
refers to the mode of making a charge. 
. Blind Hookey, the cceca rapacitas of the 
J^alins, is a game venerable for its antiquity, and 



224 MEDICINE AND 

truly medical. Put the fool to bed, is a game 
little used ; but it conveys an useful instruction 
as to the mode of dealing with a patient. 

RABELAIS, 

The son of an apothecary, a man of uncom- 
mon capacity, an adept in all branches of 
knowledge and literature; but. his wit made 
him sometimes transcend the bounds which 
ought to restrain literary men. He endured 
persecution a long time ; and having quitted the 
Franciscans, he joined the Benedictine Friars ; 
but his mercurial temper prevailing, he left them 
also, shook oft' the habit of a secular priest, and 
rambled about till he took the degree of doctor 
of physic. He gave lectures, and wrote some 
medical annotations on Hippocrates and Galen, 
but his chief work is the celebrated " Romance 
of Gangantua and Pantagruel," which has been 
considered by some as the history of his own 
time, under an ingenious fiction, and with bor- 
rowed names. 

At the end of this satire is the " Crfeme Phi- 
losophique des Questions Encyclopediques," 
containing ironical problems in natural philoso- 
phy, of one of which the following is a free 
translation. 

" Whether the hybernal frigidity of the Anti- 
podes, passing in an orthogonal line through 



MEDICAL MEN. 225 

the homogeneous solidity of the centre, might 
warm the superficial convexity of our heels by 
a soft antiperistasis?" 

DENTIST. 

A tooth-drawer, who pretended te unimpeach- 
able veracity, formerly exercised his art at 
Rouen, in France. He spoke loftily and boast- 
ingly of his dexterity and his prowess : he 
loved his trade to distraction, and regarded the 
teeth that he had drawn as so many squadrons 
overthrown, and as trophies erected to his glory. 
He had commenced by distributing affected 
hand-bills, in which he asserted, with as much 
truth as any of the fraternity, that he drew all 
teeth without pain, as well great as small. His 
glory so brilliant, but so fragile, became wrecked 
against an obstinate stump. The story is thus: 
a footman came to the house of our artist, to 
complain of a tooth which gave him great pain, 
and especially when he eat. To examine it, to 
offer his services, to fail to draw the tooth a 
first, a second, and even a third time, was the 
work of a moment. The footman, who bled 
very profusely, was angry, and expressed him- 
self in energetic terms. The operator, full of 
shame, blamed first his instruments, and then 
the irritability of his patient. The assistants 
shrugged up their shoulders and smiled : yet 

VOL. II. g 



226 MEDICINE AND 

the dentist, who perceived this smile, said, 
"You smile, gentlemen; ah well! learn that, 
after me, there is not in France a dentist capa- 
ble of drawing this stump; I'll bet immediately 
" " Softly, Sir," replied one of the assist- 
ants, " don't bet ; for if M, la Fleur will permit 
me, I will draw this unfortunate stump in less 
than two minutes." No sooner said than done ; 
and with a twist of the hand, as light as quick, 
the tooth came from the mouth with the instru- 
ment. The sight of the bloody stump, the evil 
aspects of the spectators, the joy of La Fleur, 
petrified the poor Dentist; but he did not lose 
his assurance. " I see, Sir, that you are of the 
trade," said he to the new operator; " but the 
devil d — n me if ever you could have drawn this 
tooth before I loosened it." The Student in 
Surgery (for it was one), nettled by this vapour- 
ing, replied, " Sit down there yourself; and if 
I do not draw all your teeth, one after the other, 

without a siugle failure, I consent " "It is 

not necessary," answered the Dentist; " I see 
you are a clever man, and the only one I have 
met with here fit to hold a head for me." 

WILLIAM SALMON. 

He was a pretender to physic, which he prac- 
tised with success, as far as making money was 
concerned. He was also a dealer in nostrums, 



MEDICAL MEN. 227 

and an author — astrology, alchimy, chiromancy, 
the Grand Elixir, "Septasium, or the Druggist's 
Shop opened," and such subjects, being most 
learnedly treated of by him in bulky volumes, 
some of which went through ten editions. 

BARON HALLER'S SYSTEM OF PHYSIOLOGY. 

In this work all the parts of the human body 
are described ; we have there an opportunity 
of examining the opinions of celebrated 
authors, who attribute different uses to 
the same parts. M. de Haller did not always 
decide between these opinions ; sometimes he 
proved that they ought all to be rejected. No- 
thing of importance that had been previously 
published escaped his observation, and he al- 
most uniformly added remarks of his own, to 
the intelligence he had obtained from books. 

We shall not enter into the immense 
detail of errors which Haller has refuted ; 
of new facts which he has added ; of 
the ingenious and deep views which he has 
opened ; of the doubts he has cleared up, or of 
the theories he has perfected or reformed ; this 
would be to copy the whole of his work. We 
shall confine ourselves chiefly to those subjects 
on which he has drawn every thing from his 
own proper fountain, viz. generation, the forma- 
tion of the bones, and irritability. 
2 2 



228 MEDICINE AND 

His numerous experiments, which have gene- 
ration for their object, were made on birds. 
The facility of examining their eggs, at almost 
all hours of their incubation, presented him with 
advantages which he could not have found had 
he made his inquiries on any other kind of 
animals. 

He traced the formation of the chicken from 
the instant in which the first change in the egg 
is perceived, and the vital specks begin to 
dilate, to that when the little animal quits the 
shell in which it was formed. He saw, if we 
may use the expression, the organs successively 
spring up before his eyes, acquire life and 
motion; saw them transformed and perfected; 
assume the several dispositions allotted to them 
in the animal; and beheld the arteries and 
veins unfold themselves. The vessels of the 
growing chicken are confused, and form a con- 
tinuity with those of the yolk of the egg; and 
as these vessels of the yolk are observable in 
eggs which are unimpregnated, M. de Haller 
thought himself warranted to conclude that the 
chicken existed ready-formed in the egg, previ- 
ous to its impregnation. He was equally 
assured that the foetus is also wholly formed In 
the females of oviparous animals; and he re- 
garded this observation as a conclusive proof in 
favour of the system, of the successive devclope- 



MEDJCAL MEN. 229 

merit of germs. He, however, perhaps, con- 
sidered it as a mere probability ; and would not 
have divested himself of that wisdom which 
rendered him inaccessible to the spirit of sys- 
tem, if he had not been inspired with a secret 
propensity to this opinion, by reasons of a 
different kind. 

He apprehended that the production of an 
animal, by means purely mechanical, would 
destroy one of the proofs of the doctrine of 
providence. But is it not sufficient for those 
who search in nature for proofs of this doctrine, 
that the phenomena are regulated by certain 
laws, whatever these laws may be? Is not the 
crystallization of a salt, which constantly assumes 
the same form, a phenomenon as admirable as 
that of the generation of animals? In short, the 
laws which act upon the matter, being equally 
constant, and the phenomena resulting from 
them uniformly offering the same regularity, 
whatever system we employ to explain them, is 
it not in the wisdom and perfection which the 
whole of these phenomena announce, and not in 
the nature of the powers they produce, that we 
ought to look for proofs of the existence of a 
superior being] 

It may appear more singular, that M. de 
Haller should believe religion or morality to be 



230 MEDICINE AND 

interested in the opinions of philosophers, con- 
cerning the formation of organized beings, as he 
had attacked, in a dissertation on monsters, the 
identical metaphysical reasonings, which he has 
since employed in favour of the developement of 
germs ; and he himself had proved, as we shall 
presently relate, that the repose of a philosopher 
may be disturbed by these trivial charges, 
which are often too wantonly made and easily 
admitted. 

In the experiments on ossification, M. de 
Haller traces the progress of the growth and 
solidity of the bones in oviparous animals. He 
then examines the formation of a callus in the 
bones of adult animals. He thought he had 
discovered, in his experiments, that the bones 
are at first a jelly, of thin consistence, but 
organized and formed of vessels, originally 
imperceptible to the sight, as being transparent 
and filled with a colourless liquid. This jelly 
afterwards assumes a more solid form, the 
vessels become visible, and it at last ossifies, by 
the blood of the arteries, which pass through, 
depositing in it an earthy matter. According 
to his opinion, the periosteum contributes no- 
thing to ossification, because it has a different 
organization from that of the bones ; because 
some bones have no periosteum, and this mem- 



MEDICAL MEN. 231 

brane is covered by callusses or osseous produc- 
tions ; and, lastly, because in a foetus the bones, 
at the time they become solid, have no adhesion 
to the periosteum. 

These opinions of Haller differ from those of 
Du Hamel, who explains the formation of the 
bones by supposing a successive ossification of 
the membranes of the periosteum. Indeed, 
some of M. de Haller's experiments would appear 
difficult of explanation, if we were to adopt the 
theory of M. Du Hamel. Nor is it less difficult 
to account, on Haller's system, for the formation 
of bony laminae, and especially for the alternate 
red and white strata which are observed in the 
bones of animals, fed sometimes with their com- 
mon food, and sometimes with the same food 
mixed with madder; physiologists are still 
divided between these two opinions. 

By irritability, M. de Haller means, that 
property, which certain parts of living bodies 
possess, of contracting when wounded, or even 
when touched, independently of the will of the 
animal that is the subject of experiment, and 
without its feeling any pain. A property of 
which plants seem also to partake, and which, 
being distinct from sensibility, does not depend 
on the same organs. He endeavours to prove 
that irritability resides exclusively in the mus- 



232 MEDICINE AND 

cular fibres, and sensibility in the nerves: lie 
demonstrates that parts destitute of muscles are 
not irritable, and those that are without nerves 
are not sensible; that if the nerves be divided, 
the sensibility of the part will be lost, while its irri- 
tability will remain. The nerve, when separated 
from the brain, ceases to contract ; it only pre- 
serves an appearance of motion, because it may 
serve as a foreign body to excite irritability in 
the muscle to which it belongs. On the con- 
trary, a muscle, though separated from the liv- 
ing body, still retains signs of irritability; but 
the power of it is diminished, and ceases in a 
very short time. He cautions against confound- 
ing irritability with elasticity, which is a pro- 
perty purely mechanical, and teaches to distin- 
guish the motions which irritability produces, 
from those merely chemical changes which the 
application of caustics induces in all the soft 
parts or organized bodies. 

GEORGE SKENE, M. D. 

This respectable physician died in 1807. He 
was a man of strong mind, deep research, and 
sound learning ; possessing genuine humour, 
and a poignancy of wit that was wont to " set 
the table in a roar ;" qualities when combined in 
one person, and are tempered with judgment, 



MEDICAL MEN. 233 

form excellent qualifications for a successful 
practitioner. 

INSENSIBLE PERSPIIt ATION. 

Sanctorious, in his experiments, found that the 
human frame lost about five pounds weight, 
which he could account for only by supposing 
that it passed off by the skin and lungs; and as 
it passed off insensibly, he called it " insensible 
perspiration ;" but as he knew nothing of cuta- 
neous absorption, his calculations are evidently 
imperfect. When the circulation was observed, 
and not till then, by Harvey; and when Ruysch, 
a Dutch physician, had injected the vessels of 
the skin, the road of the perspirable matter was 
demonstrated, viz. that the vessels secreting the 
perspirable matter open on the skin and on the 
surface of the lungs. These vessels, like all 
others, have the power of contracting and dilat- 
ing, and have their action, consequently the 
circulation of their fluids, increased and dimi- 
nished by many causes. They have the princi- 
ple of irritability, and are subject to the same 
| aW s; — thus external applications, as caloric 
and friction increase their power, abstraction of 
caloric contracts them. 

From the time of Sanctorius, colds, coughs, 
fevers, and other diseases, have, by many, 



234 MEDICINE AND 

been attributed to the suppression of per- 
spiration, although there was no direct expe- 
riment to prove it. That this may sometimes 
act as a cause, there can be little doubt, 
but not so often as has been imagined ; for, 
sometimes, we see people perspiring a great 
deal; at other times not at all, and without any 
bad effect. A man enjoys as good health in 
winter as in summer, in cold as in hot countries; 
and, besides that, a perspiration is carried on by 
the lungs ; nature has also taken care to guard 
against obstructed perspiration, by making the 
urine and sweat to be vicarious secretions, that 
is, when the one is increased the other is dimi- 
nished, and vice versa. The matter of perspira- 
tion, nevertheless, appears to be perfectly use- 
less to the human frame, and perhaps contains 
materials that might be hurtful if retained; 
hence, when obstructed, it may produce some 
complaints and aggravate others ; but many of 
the dangers attributed to retained perspiration, 
arise from mere torpor of the skin, and the 
effect here is taken for the cause. 

Sir Richard Phillips considers the insensible 
perspiration as a necessary consequence of the 
fixation of gas in respiration, and as the means 
of dispersing the atomic momenta created by 
such fixation of the moving atoms of atmosphe- 



MEDICAL MEN. 235 

ric gas. The one counterbalances the other, 
and, therefore, if the atomic radiation or per- 
spiration were stopt, fever would be the conse- 
quence. At the same time, the constant radia- 
tion of atoms renders food and new assimilations 
necessary. 

PHYSICIANS OF SPAIN. 

It is generally believed in England, that the 
physicians of Spain are not so respectable as 
those of this country, or of France. That they 
are not so wealthy as the former, nor as conse- 
quential as the latter, may be allowed ; but as 
a profession, protected as they are, by law, to 
support their rank, and exclude ignorant pre- 
tenders, they are not inferior to their European 
brethren. In 1820, the fee of a Spanish physi- 
cian was three reals (about nine pence). The 
fact is this: — the physicians in Spain are upon 
an establishment somewhat like our clergy; they 
possess livings of different gradations, from one 
to five-hundred a year. Each, on being ap- 
proved of by the examiners, is, according to his 
interest and talent, appointed to a certain vil- 
lage or town. He is obliged to visit all the sick 
of his district, and cannot demand a greater fee 
than three reals ; but this he is allowed. If, 
however, his fame should become extended, and 



236 MEDICINE AND 

he is sent for to any part out of his district, his 
fees are unlimited, and so high as thirty guineas 
have been known to be given. By this wise 
regulation of the Spanish government the poor 
are not driven to quacks and hospitals, but 
receive every necessary attention from their 
proper officer of health, at little expence, and 
the physicians are supported in their proper 
rank. 

MEDICAL ATTENDANT. 

" Physicians, I well know," says Dr. Gregory, 
" think thus of one another, and I hope I may, 
without offence, suppose that lawyers and sur- 
geons do so too. If a lawyer had an important 
and nice cause of his own in court, 1 presume he 
would make some selection among his profes- 
sional brethren, to whom he entrusted the con- 
duct and arguing of it. And if all the surgeons 
of Edinburgh had occasion — not to cut, which 
is a trifle — but to be cut for the stone, which is 
a very serious matter, I have no doubt but they 
would all like to make some kind of choice or 
selection of their operator. They all know well 
the nicety and danger of the operation in many 
respects : for example, that, in thrusting in a 
curious kind of knife, like a pointed scoop, with 
a very sharp cutting edge, if the operator misses 



MEDICAL MEN. 237 

the proper direction by half a quarter of an inch, 
instead of making an opening into the bladder, 
through which the stone may be extracted, he 
will perforate the nearest bowel, thereby inflict- 
ing a mortal wound. They all know that this 
misfortune has often happened in unskilful 
hands ; and to make the danger of that accident, 
and of several others, to be feared in the per- 
forming of the operation, as little, and the pro- 
bability of complete success in it as great as 
possible, they all would choose, each for him- 
self, as his operator, that one of their professional 
brethren whom each individually thought the 
most skilful and best. It is possible, that all 
the voles of the most competent ; and, in the 
case stated, the most candid judges, might not 
be united in favour of one or even two of their 
own number. But it is certain that the votet 
would not be equally divided among them all. 
Four, or perhaps ten of them, might have a 
great number of votes, in proportion to the 
number of voters : these four or ten we shall call 
the best, in the estimation of their own profes- 
sional brethren, Fifteen, or twenty, or five and 
twenty perhaps, might have each a few votes ; 
these we shall call the middling. Four, or per- 
haps ten of the whole number, might probably 
have very few or no votes; these we shall call 
the worst. 



lUKUU llNIi AN1> 



PARACELSUS. 

After Paracelsus had been instructed in the 
elements of his art, by his father, an industrious 
apothecary, and had made considerable progress 
in such chemical knowledge as the age afforded, 
he visited the principal cities and universities of 
Europe. Acquirement of knowledge being the 
great object of his journey, he consulted, with- 
out scruple, physicians, barbers, apothecaries, 
conjurors, and old women, eagerly adopting from 
every quarter whatever he thought useful in 
practice. In the course of his travels he was 
taught, or fancied he was taught, the secret of 
the philosopher's stone. The ridiculous pursuit 
of the art of turning all to gold has been never- 
theless productive of golden advantages toman- 
kind; at an aera when nothing but the strong 
stimulus either of avarice or fanaticism was able 
to rouse mankind to action, this infatuation 
paved the way to chemical experiment, to which 
we are indebted for discoveries and improve- 
ments, in various arts, which tend to the preser- 
vation, the comfort, and pleasure of human life. 

Paracelsus, impelled by curiosity, descended 
the mines, traversed the immense space of the 
Russian empire, was taken prisoner by the 
Tartars, and afterwards stood indebted for life 
and liberty to his medical skill. After receiving 



MEDICAL MEN. 239 

many valuable presents from the Cham, he 
accompanied" the son of that prince to Constan- 
tinople; and, returning to Europe, was so for- 
tunate as to restore Frobenius, a famous painter, 
to health. This circumstance introduced him 
to the acquaintance of Erasmus, and he was 
appointed professor of physic at Bayle, with a 
handsome salary ; but, being unable to resist his 
fondness for wandering, he visited Italy, and, on 
his return to Germany, died at Salzbourgh, in 
the 48th year of his age. 

AMBROSE PARE. 

During the attachment of Charles IX., the 
bigotted and brutal son of Henry II. of France, 
to his surgeon Ambrose Par6, we have a singular 
instance of medical credit, averting that miserable 
fate, at the massacre of St. Bartholomew, which 
no other claims of public or private merit, nor 
any connection of friendship, interest, or blood, 
were able to prevent. Charles shut him up in 
his own room, saying, " It is not right for a 
man so useful to the world to perish in such a 
manner." 

Richard Wiseman, sergeant-surgeon to Charles 
II., has been styled the Ambrose Pare of the 
English. The same spirit of observation, the 
same simplicity, and the same candour, prevails 
in both of them ; and the surgical works of 



240 



MEMCINE AND 



each were better than any that had preceded 
them. 

CHARLES PATIN. 

Voltaire says his works " are read by men of 
learning, as his father's letters are by men of 
leasure." 

He used to say, for the credit of his art, that 
it had enabled him to live in perfect health till 
he was eighty-two years of age ; that it had 
procured him a fortune of twenty thousand 
pounds ; and that it had acquired him the 
esteem of many respectable and enlightened 
persons. 

THE CONSCIENTIOUS PHYSICIAN. 

M. G**** a physician of reputation, but 
unfortunate in his practice, fell ill, and wished, 
notwithstanding the entreaties of his friends to 
the contrary, to prescribe for himself, from 
the apprehension that the same ill-luck, which 
attended his patients, might befall himself: he, 
however, persisted, treated himself, and died. 
The following epitaph was made on the occasion : 

Faithful to that law divine, 
Which bids us never draw a line 

Between ourselves and brothers; 
Always in this course he run, 
As now unto himself he's done, 

The same did he to others. 



ituwiv .\ jl mhiiN« 



241 



ORIGIN OF THE BARBER'S POLE. 



The barber-surgeons had a bye-law, by 
which they levied ten pounds on any person 
who should dissect a body out of their hall, 
without leave. The separation did away this 
and other impediments to the improvement of 
surgery in England, which had previously been 
chiefly cultivated in France. The barber-sur- 
geon, in those days, was known by his Pole, 
the reason of which was sought for by a querist 
in the " British Apollo," fol. Lond. 1708, No. S. 

I'd know why he that selleth ale 
Hangs out a chequer'd part per pale; 
And why a Barber at port-hole 
Puts forth a party-coloured pole ? 

ANSWER. 

In ancient Rome, when men lov'd fighting, 
And wounds and scars took much delight in, 
Man-menders then had noble pay, 
Which we call Surgeons to this day ; 
Twas order'd that a huge long pole, 
With basin deck'd, shou'd grace the hole, 
To guide the wounded, who unlopt 
Could walk, on stumps the other hopt : — 
But, when they ended all their wars, 
And men grew out of love with scars, 
Their trade decaying, to keep swimmtng, 
They join'd the other trade of trimming ; 
And to their Poles to publish either, 
Thus twisted both their trades together. 
▼ OL. II. R 



242 MEDICINE AND 

In Brand's " History of Newcastle," we find, 
that there was a branch of the fraternity in that 
place, as, at a meeting in the year 1742, of the 
Barber-chirurgeons, it was ordered, that they 
should not shave on a Sunday, and " that no 
brother should shave John Robinson till he pays 
what he owes Robert Shaftoi" 

Speaking of the " gross ignorance of the bar- 
bers," a facetious author says, " This puts me 
in mind of a barber, who, after he had cupped 
me (as the physicians had prescribed) to turn 
away a catarrh, asked me ' if I would be sacri- 
ficed?' — 'Sacrificed?' said I, 'did the physi- 
cian tell you any such thing?' — ' No, (quoth he) 
but I have sacrificed many, who have been the 
better for it.' Then, musing a little with my- 
self, I told him, ' Surely, sir, you mistake 
yourself, you mean scarified.' — ' O, sir, by 
your favour (quoth he) I have ever heard it 
called sacrificing; and, as for scarifying, I ne- 
ver heard of it before.' In a word, I could by 
no means persuade him but that it was the 
barber's office to sacrifice men. Since which 
time, I never saw any man in a barbers hands, 
but the sacrificing -b'&rher came into my head." 

LAW AND PHYSIC; AN EASTERN APOLOGUE. 

A lawgiver, in an oriental country, perceiv- 
ing evident marks of rapid declension, was anx- 



MEDICAL MEN. 243 

ious to restore the state to its pristine splen- 
dour. With this view he enacted a multiplicity 
of laws. In the mean time, he was taken ill. 
A physician was sent for, who prescribed a 
variety of remedies at once, " Why such a 
great quantity?" asked the sick minister. — 
" The more speedily to restore your health," 
was the reply ; — " But, among such a variety of 
remedies, some may counteract the effect of the 
others?" — " True," observed the physician, " I 
beg pardon; I believe I am wrong; but I was 
desirous to treat your distemper as you have 
treated the disorders of the state." 

THE UNIVERSAL REMEDY. 

" Take so much rhubarb," learned Galen says, 
" Take so much cassia, so much aloes, 
So much of t'other, and of such and such," 
Give me this recipe — " take not too much." 

ARTIFICIAL PALATE. 

(A MODERN INVENTION.) 

The natural want, or the casual destruction, of 
that delicate organ the human palate, is attend- 
ed with the most unpleasant of all effects — the 
loss of voice ; and, of the many substitutes 
which we have, very few have those advantages 
that could be wished. The common metal- 
lic palate seldom fits well, and always gives 
R2 



244 MEDICINE AND 

pain ; while those of gum caoutchouc and other 
elastic substances are offensive, and also, by 
pressing asunder the parts, increase the defi- 
ciency. The removal of them all for the pur- 
pose of cleaning, is a work of some trouble. 
In 1820, a silver palate was constructed in 
London, by a very ingenious dentist, which 
obviates many of the objections to the old con- 
struction. It fits the parts with the utmost 
nicety, and, as it does not press upon the 
edges of the deficiency, it allows the parts to 
contract, or, to a certain extent, even to be re- 
produced; while the wearer can take it but, 
clean it, and replace it, in two or three minutes. 
When it is to be removed or put in, the wings 
which fasten it to the upper side are made to 
collapse into a very small space ; and, after it 
is put in its place, they are made to expand 
and embrace the edges of the bone, with any 
degree of tightness that may be necessary. 
The whole of the machinery (which is very 
neat,) is worked by a small button in the cen- 
tre of the palate, so flat as to give no Un- 
easiness to the tongue, and yet can be 
moved with the greatest ease. Besides the 
facility with which this palate can be removed 
and replaced, the great advantage of it consists 
in the accuracy with which it fits the parts. 
The inventor, being an expert worker in me- 







SIR SAMUEL GAJSTH, "M.D. 



i 



MEDICAL MEN* 245 

tals, cuts and works the whole himself; and 
by this means was enabled to procure a perfect 
model, and also fit it precisely. 

SIR SAMUEL GARTH, 

A very able physician, rendered memorable 
by his poem, called, "The Dispensary." He 
was born in the county of York, and educated 
at Peter-house, in Cambridge, were he regu- 
larly took his degrees in physic. He practised 
in London, and was admitted a fellow of the 
College of Physicians, July 28th, 1692, and 
became one of their censors in 1702. Such 
was the violence of party at that period, that 
a wig conceived he could no more be cured by 
a tory, than a tory by a wig physician. The 
Esculapius of the former was Garth ; of the 
latter Radcliffe ; who being frightened to death, 
as it is said, by the threats of the tories, for 
not keeping Queen Anne alive, Garth remained 
without a rival ; and, consequently, on the ac- 
cession of George I., he was appointed physician 
in ordinary, and physician-general to his army ; 
and the sword of the Hero of Blenheim was 
made use of in conferring the honour of knight- 
hood upon him. The " Dispensary" introdu- 
ced Garth to the Kit-cat club. Physicians are 
celebrated in our annals as wits, poets, and 
virtuosi: the names of Freiud, Grew, Mead, 



246 MEDICINE AND 

Garth, Akenside, Armstrong, Granger, and 
Goldsmith, must ever be remembered with 
respect. Garth, more celebrated for his abili- 
ties .than his piety, lived an epicure, and died 
a latitudinarian. He said, when expiring, " I 
am glad of it, being weary of having my shoes 
pulled on and off." Pope, however, declared 
that he died in the communion of the church of 
Rome, and that, " his death was very heroical, 
and yet unaffected enough to have made a 
saint or a philosopher famous." 

Garth was as universally liked as any pri- 
vate person of his day. He was mild and 
complaisant, though a zealous party-man, and 
kind, though a wit. Pope, who certainly did 
resemble him in these respects, always speaks 
of him with the most decided affection. 

Well-natured Garth, inflam'd with early praise." 

And, " If ever there was a good christian, 
without knowing himself to be one, Garth was 
the man !" He inscribed to him his second 
pastoral, rather unluckily, being the worst of the 
four. Lord Lansdowne, too, addressed some 
verses to him, when dangerously ill, in a high 
strain of compliment, which it is to be hoped 
were dictated only by the ardour of friendship. 

Machaeon sick ! in ev'ry face we find 
His danger is the danger of mankind ; 



MEDICAL MEN. 247 

Whose art protecting, nature would expire 
But by a deluge or the genral fire. 

And as if this were not enough, mark the 
conclusion. 

Sire of all arts, defend thy darling son, 
Restore the man whose life's so much our own; 
On whom, like Atlas, all the world's reclined, 
And, by preserving Garth, preserve mankind. 

" Well meant hyperboles," as Lord Orford 
observes, on another occasion, " upon a man 
who never used any." 

DROPSY. 
Speaking of dropsy, Horace says, 

Crescet indulgens sibi dirus hydrops, 
Nee sitim pellit, ni causa morbi 
Fugent venas, et aequosus albo 
Corpore languore. 

The celebrated Heraclitus, who lived about 
five hundred years before Christ, being at- 
tacked by dropsy, resolved to consult the Phy- 
sicians. He came to the city, and enquired of 
them, if they could convert rainy weather into 
dry? As the Physicians did not comprehend 
what he meant by this enigmatical question, he 
treated them as blockheads, and would condes- 
cend to no explanation. Of his own accord 
lie went and buried himself in a dung-hill, per- 
suaded that the great heat would evaporate 



248 MEDICINE AND 

the water that incommoded him. But the re- 
medy proved worse than the disease, for in a 
very short time afterwards he died. 

Among the various cures and singular re- 
medies for the dropsy, collected in the history of 
the Academy of Sciences for 1690, M. du Hamel 
states, that he was acquainted with a person, 
resident at Mailly, who was greatly relieved of 
a dropsy, in consequence of wearing a girdle 
into which bile, well dried and finely pow- 
dered, was quilted. He adds, that two coun- 
trymen, considerably advanced in life, were 
cured of the same complaint, by remaining 
sometime in a baker's oven soon after the bread 
was drawn. Varikbillan, ninth caliph of the 
race of Abasides, was cured by a method 
nearly similar. His physician caused him to 
enter a lime-kiln soon after the lime was drawn 
forth, and, in the course of a few days, he was 
totally cured of his dropsy. 

A Swiss soldier went into the Hospital of the 
Invalids in 1779, labouring under dropsy : he 
died the 30th of December, 1780, after M. 
Morand had tapped him 57 times, and drawn 
away 485 French pints of water, besides six 
more which escaped when the body was opened. 
In a volume of the Philosophical Trans- 
actions for 1779, a case of dropsy, still more 
extraordinary, is mentioned ; being that of a 



MEDICAL MEN. 249 

young woman who died at 23 years of age. 
In the space of four years she submitted to the 
operation of the paracentesis 155 times, and 
lost 3720 pints of water. 

The palace of the King of Sardinia, at Turin, 
contains an exquisite collection of pictures. 
One of the finest is by Gerard Dow, pupil of 
Rembrandt, which presents a dropsical woman 
consulting a physician, who is examining her 
urine in a glass vessel. It exhibits a chef- 
d'ceuvre of art, combined with the truth of 
nature. 

Dr. Monro, in his Treatise on Dropsy, makes 
mention of a certain officer who insisted on his 
soldiers drawing their garters extremely tight, 
in order to give their legs a handsome shape : 
this caprice produced very serious conse- 
quences. These tight ligatures sent many men 
to the hospital, afflicted with the dropsy, 
of whom several died. The same conse- 
quences have resulted from this absurd prac- 
tice on other occasions : — the back-woodmen, 
as they are termed in America, often pass 
whole months in the open air in pursuit of 
game. The veterans accustomed to this kind 
of life are careful, when they lie down to sleep, 
to loosen all the ligatures of their clothes; but 
some of the younger, who despise such precau- 



250 MEDICINE AND 

lions, are frequently affected with dropsical 
swelling of the limbs. 

Louis the Fifteenth, soon after the battle of 
Fontenoy, complimented Marshal Saxe on the 
excellent state of his health, saying, that his 
warlike exertions, crowned by victory, had 
contributed to cure him of a dropsy with 
which he was afflicted. The Marshal de No- 
ailles, who was present, observed, that "Marshal 
Saxe, was the first general whom victory had 
dis-inflated." 

A SIMILE, BY DE. GAETH. 

Like a pert skuller, one physician plies, 
And all his art and all his skill he tries; 
But two physicians, like a pair of oars, 
Conduct you faster to the Stygian shores. 

THE MEDICAL CHAEACTEE. 

No person, it is hoped, thinks so meanly either 
of physic or surgery, as to suppose that less 
talents are requisite to practise them with cre- 
dit and success than are necessary for the 
common conduct of life ; but every person of 
sense and observation must have remarked how 
differently people profit by experience and 
observation. 

Some men, of good sense and quick dis- 



MEDICAL MEN. 251 

cernment, and active, vigorous minds, who 
attend accurately to what passes around them, 
are distinguished, even at an early period of 
life, for sagacity, prudence, decision, and 
quickness hi conduct, and a thorough know- 
ledge of the characters of men, and the manage- 
ment of business. They are accordingly res- 
pected in the world, and often consulted on 
nice and difficult occasions by those who are 
acquainted with them, and who wisely rely 
more on the judgment of such men than they 
would do on their own. 

But such men are not the majority of man- 
kind. An infinitely greater number are either 
so deficient in natural talents, or so culpably 
negligent in the use of them, that they 
appear to acquire no improvement by their 
experience of men and tilings. At fifty or 
sixty they are more dull than they were at 
twenty-five or thirty. They become as arrant 
drones in common life as any are in law, 
or physic, or surgery. No man of sense, 
who knows them, would think of consult- 
ing them, or relying on their judgment, 
in any business whatever, any more than he 
would think of consulting a lawyer when 
sick, or a physician when engaged in a law- 
suit. 



252 MEDICINE AND 

A man of such a character can never deserve 
respect, or confidence, or employment, even in 
his own profession : and there are many such 
in law, in physic, in surgery, and in all the 
employments of life. (Gregory.) 

PHILEMON HOLLAND 

Was born in Essex, about the year 1551 : 
from his numerous translations he was called 
" the translator-general of the age." He prac- 
tised physic with considerable reputation in his 
neighbourhood; and, at length, though pretty 
late in life, he took a degree of doctor of phy- 
sic, in the university of Cambridge. He brought 
up a large family of ten children with credit, 
was a benefactor to the poor, and so peaceable 
and inoffensive in his temper, that he was never 
engaged in a law-suit, either as plaintiff or de- 
fendant, though he met with some unjust treat- 
ment. 

As a reward of his regularity and temperance, 
he reached his 84th year, in full possession of 
his faculties, and with his eye-sight so good, 
notwithstanding the great use he had made of it, 
that he never had any occasion to use specta- 
cles. He died of old age, in his 85th year, 
February 9, 1636. 

The following Epigram is recorded, which 



MEDICAL MEN. '253 

he made in consequence of his having written a 
large folio with a single pen.* 

With one sole pen I writ this book, 

Made of a grey-goose quill ; 
A pen it was when it I took, 

And a pen I leave it still. 

On which Dr. Fuller observes, that " lie must 
have leaned very lightly on the nib thereof, 
though weighty enough in another sense." 

A quibbling epigram, to the following effect, 
which has been often retailed in jest-books, 
was made on his having translated Suetonius: — 

Philemon with translations so does fill us, 
He will nat let Suetoaius be Tranquillus. 

The literary feats of Philemon were only ex- 
ceeded by Andrew Toraqueau, who is said to 
have produced a book and a child every year, 
till there were twenty of each, or, as some say, 
thirty. This, with the circumstance of his be- 
ing a water-drinker, was the occasion of the 
following humorous epitaph : — 

" Hie jacet, qui aquam bibendo viginti libros suscepit, 
viginti liberos edidit. Si merum bibisset, totum orbem 
implevisset." 



* Some other voluminous writers are said to have had 
the same whim, as John Bunyan and Matthew Henry. 



254 MKDICINE AND 

» Which is translated thus: — 

Here lies a man who, drinking only water, 

Wrote twenty books, with each had son or daughter; 

Had he but used the juice of gen'rous vats, 

The world would scarce have held his books and brats. 

ACETATE OF MORPHINE. 

The detection of this poison has teen made 
the subject of experiment in France ; and the 
result appears to be, that, by chemical process, 
sensible traces of this salt can be discerned in 
the viscera. We are indebted to M. Lassaigne 
for some details published in the first number of 
a new Medical Journal. Experiments were 
made upon animals with certain quantities of 
the salt; and, in general, vomiting took place 
shortly after its administration. The rejected 
fluid yielded, after evaporation, a yellowish 
extract, which smelt like broth made of animal 
matter, with a bitter and saltish taste, redden- 
ing tournesol paper. Boiling alcohol being 
added to this, separated an insoluble flocculent 
portion, consisting of mucous and gelatinous 
matter, and a portion soluble in alcohol remain- 
ed, separable by evaporation. This alcoholic ex- 
tract being re-dissolved in a small quantity of 
water, gave out yellowish flakes of a fatty sub- 
stance; and the solution being slowly evapo- 
rated, deposited prismatic divergent crystals of 



MEDICAL MEN. 255 

a yellowish colour and bitter taste, precipitated 
from water by ammonia in white flakes, yield- 
ing a decided vinegar smell on applying sul- 
phuric acid, and colouring weak nitric acid 
yellow. This last effect appears to be the 
criterion of the presence of acetate of morphine. 

Finding some difficulty in decolourising the 
fluid submitted to chemical process, recourse 
was had to subacetate of lead, which does not 
precipitate the pure salt, while it throws down 
all the colouring vegetable matters, as well as 
the immediate principles of animal substances. 
On adding a solution of this salt to an aqueous 
one of the alcoholic extract, the supernatant 
liquor will retain but a slight tint, holding the 
different alkaline salts not affected by the 
metal, along with the acetate of morphine, and 
a slight excess of the subacetate of lead, which 
is got rid of by a few bubbles of sulphuretted 
hydrogen gas. 

Notwithstanding the circumstantial account 
given in this paper, we should like to see the 
investigation carried on in the pure analytical 
form, in which the case would come so much 
nearer one of real practice, as that those 
tests should be applied which one might sup- 
pose likely to be employed in a case of poison- 
ing, where there is no knowledge of the precise 
article that has been taken, and where the 



256 



MEDICINE AND 



first step is to ascertain this. As far as M. 
Lassaigne's paper goes it is valuable ; but, as it 
does, not contain any account either of the 
symptoms or lesion produced by the poison, it 
is but a slender contribution to toxicology. 
He confines himself entirely to that part of the 
investigation in which he was himself concerned 
— viz. the chemical. 

ANATOMY FIRST ENCOURAGED. 

It is said, that the earliest law enacted in 
any country, for the promotion of anatomical 
knowledge, was one that passed in 1540. It 
allowed the United Companies of Barbers and 
Surgeons to have yearly the bodies of four cri- 
minals to dissect. — Harrington' $ Statutes. 

WILLIAM BUTLER, M. D. 

Was the most popular and celebrated prac- 
titioner of physic in his time. He was born 
1535, and died 1617. He possessed a natural 
sagacity in judging of diseases; and is said to 
have been extremely eccerriric and capricious 
in his manners, traits of character not unfre- 
quently mimicked in the present day, and 
which, with the vulgar, pass for talent and ex- 
traordinary abilities. He is said to have been 
first taken notice of in his profession from the 
following incident : — " A clergyman, in Cam- 



MEDICAL MEN, 257 

bridgesbire, by excessive application in com- 
posing a learned sermon, winch he was to 
preach before the king at Newwarker, had 
brought himself to such a way that he could 
not sleep. His friends were advised to give 
him opium, which he took in so large a quan- 
tity, that it threw him into a profound lethargy. 
Dr. Butler was sent for from Cambridge; who, 
upon seeing and hearing his case, flew into a 
passion, and told his wife, that she was in dan- 
ger of being hanged for killing her husband, 
and very abruptly left the room. As he was 
going through the yard, on his return home, he 
saw several cows, and asked her to whom they 
belonged ? She said to her husband. " Will 
you," says the doctor, " give me one of these 
cows if I restore him to life?" — She replied, 
" with all my heart." He presently ordered a 
eow to be killed, and the patient to be put into 
the warm carcase, which in a short time reco- 
vered him."* But, it is rather supposed that 
it was not by such unnatural remedies as these 
that Butler acquired his reputation ; but by 
chemical preparations, which he is said to have 
been the first to use in England. 

Various other instances of his eccentricities 



* MS. of Mr. Aubrey, in the Ashmolean Museum, 
quoted by Granger in his Bibliographical History. 
VOL. II. S 



258 MKDIC1NI- AND 

are related. It was his custom to sit among 
tlie boys, at St. Mary's church, Cambridge; on 
one of these occasions he happened to be sent 
for to King James, at Newmarket, when he sud- 
denly turned back, on the road, to go home, so 
that the messenger was forced to drive hi in 
not ns volens before him. 

Fuller paints our humorist in the following 
glowing colours: — " Knowing himself to be the 
prince of physicians, he would be observed 
accordingly. Compliments would prevail no- 
thing with him; entreaties but little; surly 
threatenings would do much ; and a witty jeer 
i\o any thing. He was better pleased with pre- 
sents than money; loved what was pretty- 
rather thau what was costly; and preferred 
rarities before riches. Neatness he neglected 
into slovenliness; and, accounting cuffs to be 
manacles, he may be said not to have made 
himself ready for some seven years together. He 
made his hutnoursomeness to become him ; 
wherein some of his profession have rather 
aped than imitated him, who had morositatem 
cequabilem, and kept the tenor of the same 
Surliness to all persons." 

An instauce either of the extreme credulity 
of the times, or of the singular practice of 
Butler, is quoted by Wood, in his account of 
Francis Tresham, Esq., who, as an author re« 



mi-.dical Hew. 259 

lates, " Being seen in the Tower, and Dr. W. 
Butler, the great physician of Cambridge, com- 
ing to visit him, as his fashion was, gave him a 
piece of very pure gold in his mouth ; and, upon 
taking out that gold, Butler said he was poison- 
ed." This test, in all probability, must have 
been founded on superstitious notions concern- 
ing the qualities of gold ; " still, it is not im- 
possible that a mercurial poison might affect 
the colour of gold put into the mouth." 

Of Butler's extraordinary practice, Sir Theo- 
dore Mayerne relates the following instance. 
A person applied to him affected with a violent 
tooth-ache, when Butler told him that "a hard 
knot must be split by a hard wedge ; and directed 
him to smoke, without intermission, till he had 
consumed an ounce of the herb." The man 
being an habitual smoker, whirled twenty-five 
pipes before he left off.* The first occasioned 
extreme sickness, and then a flow of saliva, 
which, with gradual abatement of the pain, ran 
off to the quantity of about two quarts. The dis- 
order was entirely cured, and did not, accord- 
ing to the same author, make its appearance 
again for seventeen years. 

Butler was buried in St. Mary's church-yard, 

* The pipes must have been very small, or the ounce 
of tobacco very large, in those days. 
s, 2 



260 MEDICINE AND 

Cambridge, where the following pompous, but 
elegant epitaph, was placed over him. 

" Gulielmus Butlerus, Clorensus Aulae quondam 
socius, medicorum omnium quos prcesens eetas vidit facile 
princeps, hoc sub marmore secundum Christi adventum 
expectat; et monumentum hoc privata pietas statuit, quod 
debuit publica. Abi viator & ad tuos reversus., narra tc 
vidisse locum in quo salus jacet." 

Butler was not an author, nor did he leave 
any manuscripts behind him. The following 
lines are, however, some proof of the estimation 
in which he was held as a physician : — 

" When now the fates 'gan wonder that thier thrids 

Were so oft tied again, half cut i' th' mids. 

And Charron wanting his us'd Naulu sware, 

He now-a-days did want of many a fare. 

They all conspire, and found, at last, that it 

Was skillfull Butler, who men's lives could knit. 

Almost untried, they killed him, and yet feared 

That he from death by death would ghosts have reared." 

DISCOVERY OF LITHOTOMY. 

The year 1724 shines in the records of elri- 
rurgery, as the epoch of a most important dis- 
covery — that of lithotomy. A Parisian archer, 
much tortured by the stone, and condemned to 
death for a capital offence, offered to submit 
to the experiment. It succeeded; and his ex- 
ample tempted others to venture the operation. 



MEDICAL MEN. 261 

It does not, however, appear, that, during the 
fifteenth century, the knowledge of this great 
secret was extended beyond France. — Mon- 
strellet. Villaret. 

ENTHUSIASM OF MEDICAL STUDENTS. 

In their societies, the ardour of our students 
is excited to a degree of enthusiasm ; " some- 
times," observes Dr. Gregory, " if I may take 
the liberty to say so, approaching very near 
to phrenzy. Their debates on controverted 
points have often been conducted with all the 
violence of party-spirit; within my memory, 
some of them fought with pistols about their 
medical systems ; many more were eager to do 
the same. From what I have seen and heard, 
I can have no doubt that some of them would 
gladly have died martyrs to their medical faith. 
One zealot, out of stark love and kindness, 
resolving to convert me to that faith, came to 
my house on pretence of asking some questions 
about what I had taught in my lectures, and 
regaled me with an harangue, of which I under- 
stood not one-fiftieth part, but which lasted 
nearly an hour, and was delivered with such 
vehemence of gesture and passion, that he not 
only sweated profusely, but literally foamed 
at the mouth. If he had gone a very little fur- 
ther, or had repeated such exhibitions, it would 



262 MFD1CINE AND 

have been my duty to have got him confined 
as a lunatic 

" Two-and-thirfy years ago, when Dr. Cui- 
len's tub to amuse the whale was in the highest 
repute, and, of course, was the great subject 
of enthusiasm among the students, one gentle- 
man concluded his thesis by declaring roundly, 
and I dare say very truly, that he would 
rather be in the wrong with Dr. Cullen, than 
in the right with other people. Si erravero 
tamen, cum Newtono el Culleno, magna conan- 
tem errare, qnam, cum vulgo hominum ignave 
sapere, potius juvabit. 

. " Twelve or fourteen years afterwards, but 
long before Dr. Cullen's death, when his tub 
had been knocked to pieces, and the whale had 
got another to play with, one of our students was 
so delighted with his new plaything, and held 
jn such contempt the old one, which perhaps 
had amused his father, that he began his the- 
sis, which I would not allow him to publish, by 
declaring flatly, that till the new doctrine was 
broached, which he was going to expound, 
there had been either no principles, or only 
false principles in physic cum, prater vnam 
doctrinam, nuper et nondum omnem in lucem 
editam, out nullis aut falsis hactenus medicina 
principiis culta sit, fyc. with an asterisk of 
reference to Brunonis Elemenia. This tub 



MEDICAL MEN. 263 

lias since that time drifted over to the conti- 
nent ; and, a few years ago, afforded infinite 
amusement and full employment to the great 
Kraken of Germany; perhaps it does so still. 

" But the most complete and ludicrous speci- 
men of the importance of the debates, and of 
the orators in their own eyes, was a newspaper 
actually published in Edinburgh, containing an 
account of the debates in one of the medical 
societies, or, for aught 1 know, in all of them, 
for the edification of the public; somewhat in 
the style of the newspaper accounts of the 
debates in the two Houses of Parliament. If I 
remember right, I saw two or three numbers 
of that paper; I do not recollect the year of 
it, nor do I know how long it was continued ; 
considering the nature of the debates, and the 
price of paper, print, and stamps, I presume 
not many months. 

" Yet, after all, that part of our medical edu- 
cation has done much more good than harm. 
The good of it is great, general, and perma- 
nent ; the evil partial ; and, though not small, 
generally transient. 

Unus et alter 

Forsitan hsec spernant juvenes, quibus, arte benigna, 

E meliore luto flnxit praecordia Titan. 

" Such young men, of superior sense, will 
from the first obtain all the good and none of 



264 MEDICINE AND 

the evil which these institutions can produce. 
I have had the pleasure of seeing many in- 
stances of this kind. Others, according as 
they have more or less of the coxcomb in their 
composition, and according to the opportu- 
nities they have of improvement, by being 
actually engaged in the practice of their pro- 
fession, may not be thoroughly cured of de- 
bating and haranguing for five, ten, or twenty 
years ; some are absolutely incurable, aud 
are as great orators, and as little physicians, 
at the age of sixty, as they were at four- 
and-twenty. This they generally find to their 
sorrow when it is too late. With a view to the 
one thing needful, I mean the guineas — the 
guineas, the prattle of a London apothecary, 
and some little knowledge of quadrille, will go 
farther than all the science and all the elo- 
quence that ever were acquired in a medical 
society, or displayed in a medical consultation." 

MASTER JOHN HALLE, 
Chirurgeon of Maidstone, " a most famous Man." 

Little of the history of this " most famous 
man," as Clowes calls him, is known, except 
from the picture prefixed to his book, dated 
1564, ictat 35, from which it appears he must 
have been born in 1529. He wrote several 
works; among them is one entitled, " History 



iMEDJCAL MEN. 265 

sal Exposl illation against the beastlye Abuses 
both of Chyrurgerie and Physicke in our Time," 
&c. This consists chiefly of accounts of cer- 
tain medical and astrological impostors, who 
visited Maidstone, and the parts adjacent, while 
Halle resided there. From the specimens he 
gives of some of their bills, and the relation of 
their artifices to impose on the credulous vul- 
gar, it appears that quackery has been ever the 
same thing from its earliest date to the present 
time, except that the character of conjurer 
is not now so often attached to it as formerly. 
The author subjoins to this Expostulation some 
sober advice to regular practitioners, much bet- 
ter than the poetry in which it is clothed; and 
concludes the whole with a set of prayers for 
the use of surgeons. — Aikin. 

apothecaries' charges. 

Many of the. more voluminous writers in this 
department have paid attention to the fees and 
charges which medical practitioners are en- 
titled to for their attendance on the sick; and 
this we hold to belong strictly to that branch 
of political medicine termed jurisprudence. 
In Great Britain, a pure practitioner of physic, 
and (we presume) of surgery, cannot recover at 
law any remuneration for his professional la- 
bours — the fee is entirely an honorary affair — 



26G MEDICINE AND 

an understood, and not expressed matter, upon 
which no action can be raised. The only 
remedy of ibis nature is in the power of that 
practitioner who, along with his advice, attend- 
ance, and other assistance, furnishes the com- 
mercial part of the transaction — the drugs or 
implements that are bona fide matters of con- 
sumption or use. For the cost of these an action 
may lie ; and the only way in which such articles 
can be rendered sources of lucrative gain, is by 
charging such as are required at several hun- 
dred per cent, above their market price, or by 
dispensing several hundred times more of them, 
or of something else, than is required — or by 
both. 

. Many actions are brought on this ground to 
recover payment for medicines ; and rarely 
does an instance of such a nature occur without 
calling forth animadversions and exciting ridi- 
cule as to the quantum of medicinal prepara- 
tions in the first instance, and the price form- 
ing a bill proverbial as to length. This system 
of practice, or rather of traffic, which is chiefly 
confined to the surgeon-apothecaries of Lon- 
don, is a great abuse of the noble art of heal- 
ing, and little better than an imposition on the 
public. We wish well to the body of general 
practitioners, for we believe them to be a highly 
meritorious order; but we also wish we could 



MEDICAL MEN. 2G7 

see them requited for their important labours 
in some other way, and doubt whether it be 
not in their own power to effect this. Were a 
reform attained in this respect, we should not 
every now and then meet with cases like the 
following : — 

Covrt of King's Bench, Thursday, February 19, 1824. 
Cole ». Devereux. 

This was an action to recover payment for attending 
the defendant during a long illness, in the course of which 
the plaintiff had supplied the medicines. The first witness, 
a surgeon, who had served an apprenticeship to plaintiff, 
stated the charges to have been reasonable, and the treat- 
ment proper ; and, on being cross-examined, stated, among 
other items, that boxes of pills, of various descriptions, 
had been charged 3s. 6d. each, the original cost of the 
materials being perhaps 6d. Other witnesses considered 
the charges reasonable; among whom was Mr. Bampfield, 
of Bedford-street, whose house had been kept by Apothe- 
caries for the last century ; and, on reverting to accounts 
as far back as 1758, and, comparing them with Mr. Cole's 
account, he saw no great difference between them. The 
custom of making presents to apothecaries, in addition to 
their bills, he was sorry to say, had ceased. 

The counsel for the defendant considered, that his client 
had been charged exorbitantly; and that all the wit- 
nesses, who had spoken to the reasonableness of the bill, 
were interested in making it out to be so, because they 
were all apothecaries or surgeons, who justified their own 
charges when they sustained these. He animadverted 
upon the fact, that two boxes of pills were frequently 



268 MEDICINE AND 

charged twice in the same day, which it was impossible 
the defendant could have swallowed. 

The judge, in directing the jury, remarked, that if the 
defendant had not intended to pay the plaintiff, according 
to the usual system of the profession, he should have called 
for his account at an earlier period. 

The jury found a verdict for the plaintiff, and awarded 
him about two-thirds of the sum sought to be recovered. 
Lond. Med. Repos. 

A PHYSICIAN OF QUEEN ELIZABETH. 

In 1559, tiie physician in ordinary of Eliza- 
beth had a pension of 100/. per annum, besides 
diet, wine, wax, &c. The professorships, at 
both universities, continued at 40/. a-year, as 
in the days of Henry VIII.; but, as the money 
had been reformed by the queen, the amount 
was really much greater than it had been. 

WILLIAM BUTTS, 

Highly characterised for great experience, 
not only by the records of the College of Phy- 
sicians, but, also, much extolled for his learn- 
ing, took his doctor's degree at Cambridge, 
and, in 1519, petitioned to be incorporated ad 
eundum at Oxford. He was knighted by Henry 
VIII. and attended that monarch when he con- 
firmed the Charter of the Surgeons of London, 
in 1512. He constitutes one of the principal 
figures in Holbein's celebrated picture at Bar- 
bers' Hall, where he is represented on his knees, 



MEDICAL MEN. 2(59 

wilh seventeen oilier persons, all looking as if 
the charter was their death-warrant. One of 
them, Ayeliffe, had been sheriff of London, 
and a merchant of Blackvvell hall; part of his 
story may be learned from the following 
epitaph : — 

In surgery brought up in youth, 

A knight here lieth dead ; 
A knight and eke a surgeon, such 

As England seld' hath bred. 

For which no sovereign gift of God, 

Wherein he did excel], 
King Henry VIII. call'd him to court, 

Who lov'd him dearly well. 

King Edward, for his service sake, 

Bade him rise up a knight, 
A name of praise, and ever since, 

He's Sir John Ayeliffe, knight. ■ 

Stow, I. 6T. 



Of the indisputable claims to respectability 
of this distinguished and most prominent 
branch of the profession of medicine, Dr. 
Gregory presents us with the following 
remarks : 

" The high estimation of what are called the 
learned and liberal professions, and the very libe- 
ral payment of the services of those who have 



270 MEDICINE AND 

attained eminence in them, depend very much oil 
the general and just belief, that great, or even 
equal proficiency in them canuot be acquired 
by every man who may chose to undertake 
them; and that great eminence in them cannot 
be acquired without superior talents and per- 
severing application and study. 

" Of" all the professions I ever heard of, 
surgery itself, as I think, affords the best exam- 
ple and illustration of that principle, and of 
the consequences proceeding from it. In this 
country, as in every other in Europe, or, I 
believe, in the world, surgery, for many ages, 
was not regarded a learned or liberal profes- 
sion. The surgeons were, and in most parts of 
Europe to this day are, ignominiously classed 
with the common barbers, Within these two 
hundred years, they have, in this country, 
raised their profession to very high and just 
estimation; in which, I hope for their sake, 
and still more for the good of mankind, it shall 
ever continue. But this happy change was 
not produced, nor could it have been produced, 
by preserving an equality among the barber- 
surgeons, but quite the contrary; by the very 
superior skill and improvement of a few of 
their number, which made themselves and 
their profession respectable, and I hope will 
always do so. One of the first good effects of 



MEDICAL MEN. 271 

it was the separation of the surgeons from the 
barbers. The common way of stating this (as 
a kind of joke on the surgeons) is, that the 
barbers insisted on separating from them. I 
can well conceive that this may be true, but 
on a principle different from the one insinuated. 
When a few men of merit, as surgeons, rose 
to eminence, and were esteemed as gentlemen 
of a liberal profession, their society and con- 
versation could not be agreeable to the plain 
barbers; but, if the surgeons should continue 
to establish among themselves a perfect equa- 
lity, so that it should be indifferent to any 
person who needed the help of a surgeon which 
of them he sent for, and that a stranger, com- 
ing to Edinburgh to undergo a capital opera- 
tion, might call for a surgeon, just as lie would 
call for a barber if he wanted to be shaved, 
I dare say the barbers would soon be prevailed 
on to admit the surgeons into their company 
again." 

MARK AKENSIDE, M. D. 

This elegant scholar was, in 1760, phy- 
sician to St. Thomas's Hospital, from which 
circumstance we may infer, that he did not 
confine his attention entirely to the " pleasures 
ef the imagination," though he was far more 



272 MF.DICINF. AND 

distinguished by his poetry than his physic. 
During his professional career, at the above 
hospital, he made some observations on scirrh- 
us and cancer, in which cases he employed 
the oxymuriate hydrargyri, and cicuta, which 
was then coming into vogue, for the cure 
of strumous affections. We shall only glance 
at one or two cases. The first was a woman, 
thirty years of age, who came under Dr. 
Akenside's care in St. Thomas's Hospital, 
for a scirrhus swelling on the right side of 
her neck, which impeded deglutition, and 
caused great pain in her throat and mouth. 
The external surface of the tumour was also 
very painful, and from its stinging or lacerat- 
ing pains, radiated over the temples and in 
different directions. Akenside gave her, twice 
a day, a quarter of a grain of the oxymuriate 
of mercury, in a spoonful of proof spirit, keep- 
ing the bowels open with some aperient 
waters. Under this treatment the patient found 
daily benefit, the pains gradually vanished — 
deglutition became easy — and the mouth free 
from soreness* On laying aside her medicines 
the disorder returned, and she was re-admitted 
to the hospital as bad as ever. A repetition of 
the same treatment restored her once more, 
and she was discharged cured. 



MEDICAL MEN. 273 

Another case of scirrhous and cancerous 
tongue, cured by the same remedy, is related.* 
Med. Chirurg. Rev. 

MONSTROUS CRANIA. 

Cuvier once read a memoir before the mem- 
bers of the Institute of France, on two heads 
of enormous size, which had become the source 
of a thousand ridiculous stories. The first was 
found in Germany, and had long been regarded 
by various writers as having belonged to a 
race of giants, who had disappeared from the 
earth after the deluge. Soemmering, after 
an attentive examination, was led to suppose 
the great developement of this head as aris- 
ing from diseased action. Cuvier confirmed 
this opinion, and maintained, besides, that not 
only was the head in question one which be- 
longed to an individual of the ordinary race, 
but that it must have been the head of a child, 
in which the enlargement took place prior to 
the developement of the teeth, as he disco- 
vered several of these, similar to the milk teeth 
of infants. The second wonder is a Parisian 

* We do not presume to say that the above were cases 
of scirrhous or cancer; although we have witnessed 
several instances where tumours of a very suspicious 
appearance were dispersed by quietude, open bowels, low 
diet, and small doses of the oxymuriaa hijdrarijyri. 
VOL. II. T 



274 MEDICINE AND 

scull found in the environs of the town, and 
preserved in the museum of M. de Jussieu. 
This presents no very remarkable external 
deformity, and the size does not seem consider- 
ably augmented ; but the weight is extraordi- 
nary, and the thickness one inch and a half: 
and it had acquired the hardness of ivory. This 
morbid organization of bone has been observed 
frequently in other parts. The thickness, hard- 
ness, and weight of the cranium generally de- 
pend upon an altered state of the brain. 

THE ART OF PRESCRIBING. 

Triller relates, that a physician of his ac- 
quaintance always had his pocket filled with 
recipes of all kinds. When consulted, he de- 
sired the patients to draw one forth by chance, 
assuring them that the lot they drew would in- 
fallibly answer their purpose. — A lady labouring 
under severe pain of the chest consulted this 
Esculapius; she put her hand in his pocket, 
and perceiving she had drawn a prescription 
for a clyster, she was seized with so violent a fit 
of laughing, that an abscess in her lungs broke ; 
and from that moment she rapidly recovered. 

The celebrated Dr. Hugh Smith had, at one 
time, his prescriptions engraved, leaving blanks 
for the quantities of the ingredients. But this 
being discovered by some of the patients com- 



MEDICAL MEN. 275 

paring their prescriptions, very nearly deprived 
the Doctor of his business, great as his repu- 
taiion then was. 

At one time, the same gentleman took a phy- 
sician into partnership. On a friend express- 
ing his surprise at his selecting a man whose 
talents could be considered only as of the mid- 
dling order; "I did not want a rival, but a 
drudge," was the reply. 

JENNER AND THE FOREIGN POTENTATES. 

When the foreign potentates arrived in this 
country in 1814, they all expressed a wish to 
see Dr. Jenner; he was first introduced to 
the Grand Duchess of Oldenburgh, when the 
conversation turned upon philosophical sub- 
jects, and her imperial highness astonished the 
doctor by the extent of her information. Dr. 
Jenner requested her imperial highness, when 
she wrote to her august mother, to have the 
goodness to say that he had a grateful remem- 
brance of the kind attention which she shewed 
him. " When I write?" sue replied, "I will 
write this very evening !"— At parting she said, 
" Dr. Jenner, you must see the emperor my 
brother, who is expected here soon." Dr. Jen- 
ner bowed acquiescence and withdrew. 

The emperor arrived, and the promised 
interview took place in the most gracious form. 
T 2 



276 MEDICINE AND 

The doctor was ushered into a room, which 
soon after his imperial majesty entered alone. 
He pronounced the words " Dr. Jenner !" (which 
was relumed with a respectful bow), and then 
advanced and touched his right shoulder. 
Alexander shortly commenced a discourse upon 
the astonishing effects of vaccinalion in Russia; 
and Dr. Jenner had the pleasure of hearing 
him declare, that the vaccine had nearly sub- 
dued small-pox throughout that country. Dr. 
Jenner then told the emperor that he had the 
highest gratification at hearing such an impor- 
tant fact from his majesty himself. The Doctor 
next presented the monarch with a volume of 
his own works upon the subject; and added, 
" that in whatever country vaccination was 
conducted in a similar way to that which his 
majesty had commanded in the Russian empire, 
the small-pox must necessarily become ex- 
tinct." 

- In a few days afterwards Count Orloff, with 
whom he had been long acquainted, from at- 
tendance on his countess, waited on Dr. Jenner, 
and asked him if a Russian order would be 
acceptable to him, should his majesty be gra- 
ciously pleased to confer it. Dr. Jenner re- 
plied, that he thought this exclusively belonged 
to men of perfect independence. The count 
expressed his surprise at his not possessing a 



MEDICAL MEN. 277 

pecuniary independence. Dr. Jenner answered, 
that he possessed a village fortune, though not 
what came under the general acceptation of 
the term independence. 

By appointment Dr. Jenner waited on the 
King of Prussia. The doctor came rather late, 
and the king was in haste to go to church. 
His majesty, however, gave him a very polite 
reception, and apologized for being under the 
necessity of going to church ; but made, as did 
the other sovereigns, a general acknowledgment 
of the obligations of the world to Dr. Jenner. 
His Prussian majesty was the first crowned 
head who submitted his own offspring to vac- 
cination; and the Emperor of Austria followed 
his example. After the king was gone, the 
crown-prince, and many others of the illustri- 
ous foreigners, honoured Dr. Jenner with parti- 
cular notice, and gave him a pressing invitation 
to Berlin. 

Dr. Jenner's next presentation was to Blu- 
cher. He was very polite, and rather face- 
tious. Before the general entered the room, a 
Turkish tobacco-pipe (a Turkey bowl with an 
alder stick) was brought in by a servant, upon 
a velvet cushion. 

The next interview was with Platoff. To 
the astonishment of Dr. Jenner, who was ac- 
companied by Dr. Hamel (a physician born on 



278 MEDICINE AND 

the banks of the Don, and acquainted with the 
Cossack language), the count proved to be 
quite a polished gentleman, had a knowledge of 
vaccination, aud practised it. He said, " Sir, 
you have extinguished the most pestilential dis- 
order that ever appeared on the banks of the 
Don." 

SMOKING. 

Boxhornius, the learned professor at Leyden, 
injured his health by smoking too much. So 
addicted was he to this practice, that he wore a 
hat with a hole in it to support his pipe, so 
that he could smoke, whilst he was studying 
and writing. 

REVIVAL OF THE HUMORAL PATHOLOGY. 
Systems of medicines are notoriously under 
the influence of vicissitude. The leading doc- 
trines of the present day are, in most cases, 
directly opposed to those which referred all 
diseases to the state of fluids. This old and 
obsolete pathology has, however, been revived 
and defended with great boldness and spirit, 
by Professor Hosack, in the medical school of 
New York. The positions defended are — 1. 
" That most, if not all diseases, arise primarily 
in the fluids." The solidists of Philadelphia 
reply, "that all the fluids are derived from the 
solids, and ask, whether it is the blood, or the 



MEDICAL MUX. 27.'^ 

integuments and blood-vessels, which are first 
affected in vaccinating?" — 2. " That the blood 
is often marked by a morbid lentor or vis- 
cidity." It is replied, that " this is never the 
case till the blood be extricated, and begin to 
decompose ; and in Phthisis, rheumatism, and 
inflammatory fevers, it is perceptibly thinner 
than in health." — 3. "That the blood sometimes 
receives sundry kinds of morbific acrimony 
from without." It is replied, " that even the 
matter of small-pox or syphilis only irritates 
the solids ; such as the punctured integuments, 
or the lymphatic glands, which by sympathy 
re-produce the disease in distant parts. In the 
case of turpentine, garlic, <&c. being perceptible 
to the organs of smell, in the urine, and in the 
milk, while no such odour is detected in the 
blood nor in the chyle; it is conjectured, that 
the odoriferous matter may be reproduced by 
sympathy, in the same manner." — 4. "That the 
blood sometimes contains a putrid acrimony 
engendered within." It is replied, " that the 
vital principle is so powerfully antiseptic, that 
it would immediately correct such a putridity, 
or the animal would die." — 5. " That contagion 
is generated, multiplied, and diffused through 
the system." It is replied, from experiment, 
that " blood taken from patients in small-pox, 
cow-pox, measles, or lues, will not infect by in- 



280 MEDICINE AND 

oculation. The contagious matter of plague, 
&c. is increased by secretion, while the blood 
remains healthy, like the poison of the rattle- 
snake, whose blood is not poisonous ; or of the 
cherry-laurel, whose sap or juice is not more 
poisonous than that of the birch, or sugar- 
maple." 

MORBUS PED1CULARIS. 

This is indeed a horrible and disgusting 
malady, and probably affords the most melan- 
choly image of human mortality. History 
makes mention of various individuals who have 
thus been, as it were, devoured alive. In the 
midst of affluence and luxury, Sylla terminated 
his life in this manner, at his seat at Cuma. 
There are even two awful and striking examples 
of sovereigns who have perished in this man- 
ner ; Herod, King of Judaea, in whose reign 
Jesus Christ suffered ; and the last King of 
Spain of the Austrian dynasty, who died the 
last year of the seventeenth century. 

WILLIAM CLOWES, 

One of the most eminent surgeons of his time, 
but of whom no biographical memoir is to be 
met with, with the exception of those extracted 
from his works, relates a story, in one of his 
prefaces, which may serve to shew the credulity 



MEDICAL MEN. 281 

of the age in which he lived, as well as the 
petty knavery of an impostor in low life. An 
old woman, who pretended to cure all diseases 
by a charm, for the simple fee of a penny and 
a penny loaf of bread, was committed for sor- 
cery and witchcraft, by the magistracy, and 
arraigned, for these heinous crimes, at the 
assizes. The judges, however, who were not 
quite so credulous, told the old sorceress that 
she should be discharged if she would make an 
ample confession, and reveal the nature of her 
charm; when she immediately told them, that 
it consisted, holus bolus, in the following verses, 
pronounced after she had received her penny: — 

My loaf in my lap, 

My penny in my purse; 
Thou art never the better, 

Nor am I never the worse! 

Well, indeed, it would have been for man- 
kind if empiricism and imposture had always 
been as simplified as this. 

ANTIPATHIES. 

The Duke D'Epernon would faint at the 
sight of a leveret. Ca»sar D'Abret at a suck- 
ing pig. Schoockins, professor of philosophy, 
at the sight or smell of cheese. Tycho Brahe, 
at the sight of a fox. Hobbes, if left in the 
dark. Bacon, during an eclipse of the Sun. 



282 MEDICINE AND 

Bayle, if lie heard water falling from a rain 
spout. There was one Olaus (says George 
Harmeus, in the acts of Copenhagen 1676) who, 
at the sound of his own name, would shriek and 
become convulsed. Schoenk speaks of a person 
who immediately swooned if a pig was brought 
upon table. — (Observ. Med.) 

ANALYSIS OF VENOUS BLOOD. 

Venous blood, left to itself, forms, after a short 
time, a soft mass, which by degrees separates 
spontaneously into two parts, the one liquid, 
yellowish, and transparent, called serum ; the 
other soft, almost solid, of a deep reddish 
colored brown, entirely opaque, which is the 
cruor or curd, and falls to Ihe bottom of the 
vase; the other, the serum, lies on the top of 
it. There sometimes forms on the surfaces of 
the serum, a thin soft, reddish coat, to which 
the name of crassamenlum has been given. 
This spontaneous separation of the elements of 
the blood only takes place in proportion as it 
is left in a state of repose. If it be agitated, 
it remains liquid, and preserves for a greater 
length of time its homogeneous appearance. 

Placed in contact with oxygen gas, or atmo- 
spheric air, the blood takes a vermilion red tint ; 
with ammonia it becomes of a cherry colour ; 
with azote a more deep red brown, &c. In 



MEDICAL MEN. 283 

changing colour it absorbs a very considerable 
quantity of these different gases ; and kept .some 
time under a bell placed over mercury, it 
exhales a great quantity of carbonic acid. 

According to Berzelus, 1000 parts of 
human serum contain 

Water 903 .0 

Albumen 80.0 

r Lactate of soda and T 

Substances solu-l extractive matter. .4 I 

ble in alcohol 1 Muriate of Soda and f 

{_ potash 6 J 

r Soda and animal 
Substances solu- 1 matter 






ble hi water . A Phosphate of soda. .4 f 
Loss 

Total 1000.0 

The serum sometimes presents a whitish 
milky tint, which may have led to believe that 
it contained chyle : the matter which gives it 
this colour appears to be grease. 

The CRUOR of the blood is essentially com- 
posed of fibrine and colouring matter. 

The fibrine, separated from the colouring 
matter, is solid, whitish, insipid, and inodor- 
ous, heavier than water, without any action on 
vegetable colours, elastic when moist, and 



284 - MEDICINE AND 

becoming brittle by dessication. It yields, 
by distillation, a quantity of the carbonate of 
ammonia, &c. and a very voluminous carbon, 
the ashes of which contain a great quantity of 
the phosphate of lime, a little of the phosphate 
of magnesia, carbonate of lime, and carbonate 
of soda. A hundred parts of fibrine are 
composed of 

Carbon 53.360 

Oxygen 19.685 

Hydrogen 7.021 

Azote 19.934 

Total 100.000 



The colouring matter is soluble in water and 
in the serum of the blood. When examined with 
the microscope, it appears dissolved in these 
liquids, like the greater part of the animal 
fluids, formed of small globules; dried and 
calcined afterwards in contact with the atmo- 
sphere, it melts, puffs up, burns with a flame, 
and leaves a carbon that cannot be reduced to 
ashes without considerable difficulty. This 
carbon, during its combustion, disengages am- 
moniacal gas, and furnishes about the hun- 
dredth part of its weight of ashes, composed of 
about 



MEDICAL MEN. - 285 



Oxyde of iron 53.0 

Phosphate of lime, and traces of phos- ) R , 

phate of magnesia \ 

Pure lime 17.5 

Carbonic acid 19.5 



Total 98.5 



Neither gelatine nor phosphate of lime are 
found in any of the parts of which the blood is 
composed. — Precis de Phisiologie Element aire. 

UTILITY OF .MEDICAL CONSULTATIONS. 

" My veneration for my own profession, and 
for those who practise it, is not excessive; and 
many things in the theory and the practice of it 
I consider as fair objects of ridicule, contempt, 
and reproach. I trust, therefore, I may have 
some chance of meeting with credit, when I 
declare, that I do not regard proper consulta- 
tions of medical men as frivolous or useless, but 
quite the contrary ; in numberless cases, they 
are just what will best conduce to the relief or 
cure of their patients. In all cases, either of 
doubt or of great danger, a physician must be 
wonderfully ignorant, or wonderfully arrogant, 
most probably both, who does not anxiously 
desire a consultation, either for his patient's 
sake, or for his own. 



28G MEDICINE AND 

" Many advantages arise from two consulting- 
together, who are men of candour, and have 
mutual confidence in each other's honour. A 
remedy may occur to one which did not to 
another ; and a physician may want resolution, 
or sufficient confidence in his own opinion, to 
prescribe a powerful but precarious remedy, on 
which, however, the life of his patient may 
depend ; in this case, the concurrent opinion 
of his brother may fix his own. But if there 
is no mutual confidence ; if opinions are re- 
garded, not according to their intrinsic merit, 
but according to the person from whom they 
proceed ; or if there is reason to believe that 
sentiments delivered with openness are to be 
whispered abroad, and misrepresented to the 
public, without regard to the obligations of 
honour and secrecy ; and if, in consequence 
»f this, a physician is singly to be made re- 
sponsible for the effects of his advice; in such 
cases, consultations of physicians tend rather 
to the detriment than the advantage of the sick, 
and the usual, and indeed most favourable con- 
clusion of them is, some very harmless but 
insignificant prescription. 

" The consultations which we read of in the 
works of Moliere, and Le Sage, and Fielding, 
and the New Bath Guide, and fifty other 
books, are certainly very entertaining; so per- 



MEDICAL MKN. 287 

liaps would many of our real consultations be, 
if they were as generally known. But here an 
important distinction must be made, which in 
general has been overlooked. They are not 
equally eutertaining to every body ; commonly 
they are most entertaining to those who are 
not interested in them, and not in the least 
entertaining to those who are. I do not know 
a worse joke than a consultation of physicians 
is to the person who is the subject of it, except 
a consultation of surgeons: for this involves 
the horrible notion of pain, in addition to 
danger or death. 

" Accordingly, many a very facetious man, 
who used to have a large assortment of excel- 
lent stories and jokes on our faculty, cannot 
think of one of them, when a few surgeons are 
consulting whether he shall lose his life, or 
only one of his legs. 

" It is with them and the faculty, just as 
with those wags who have an inexhaustible 
stock of the best old jokes on the clergy, and 
on religion ; but when they are dying of the 
dropsy, or going to be hanged, lose at once 
all relish for them, and look almost as grave 
as the physician or the judge who condemned 
them. 

" I can suppose a man of such firm nerves, 
that in the midst of five and twenty surgeons, 



288 MEDICINE, ETC. 

consulting whether he shall be cut for the stone, 
he shall mind them no more than as many hob- 
goblins shown by a magic lantern, and withal 
of so facetious a disposition, as to exclaim, 
before they have ended their consultation," 

" Centum me letigere manus Aquilonegelatse; 
Non habui febrem, Symmache, nunc habeo." 

Gregory. 

QUALITIES OF A GOOD PHYSICIAN. 

Aselepiades said, that an excellent physician 
ought to cure his patients tuto, celcriter, et 
jucunde (surely, quickly, and pleasantly). " Our 
Doctors/' observed the famous Guy Patin on 
this subject, " send us into the other world 
tuto et celcriter." It might be added, that 
many of the present dav join thejucundt. 



"END OF VOL. II. 



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